Ureteroscopy - reading and preparation for the procedure,

Contents:

1. When appointed?

2. Contraindications

3. How to prepare?

ureteroscopy - endoscopic procedure that is used to remove or crushing stones in the lower or middle part of the ureter, as well as to correct anatomical abnormalities (obstructions of vesicoureteral reflux and segment ureteral strictures).

procedure is as follows:

  1. surveyed put a dropper to supply the necessary antibiotics.
  2. manipulation itself is painful, so runs the general or local anesthesia.
  3. After anesthesia the surgeon introduces the first ureteroscope into the ureter and then into the renal pelvis.
  4. If stones are small, they are removed by means of special baskets and forceps.Cart allows you to capture the calculus from all sides, making it easier to extract.Large stones initially crushed into small particles by means of ultrasound, laser or electrohydraulic probe and then removed by suction.
  5. After studying the inner surface of the organs and all the necessary medical manipulations patient is fitted with
    the outer catheter (a thin tube leading from the kidney to the bladder) for 12-24 hours.In some cases, the catheter is left for several days or even weeks.It improves the discharge of microscopic parts of calculus and provide a full flow of urine.The choice of postoperative drainage depends on the degree of trauma and intervention complexity.

After ureteroscopy patient can be scheduled for 3-5 days antimicrobials.

When he appointed?

The following indications for ureteroscopy:

  • removal of stones and diverticula;
  • chronic inflammatory diseases of the urethra;
  • removal of foreign bodies;
  • cut urethral strictures (abnormal its restrictions);
  • treatment of pathologies seed tubercle;
  • electrocoagulation hemangiomas;
  • definition malformations.

Furthermore, during uretroskopii intended urethral neoplastic biopsy can be performed and bladder.

Contraindications

Carrying ureteroscopy are contraindicated in the presence of patients of acute inflammatory processes in the prostate, urethra, seminal vesicles and their appendages.In the presence of large stones in the ureter (more than 1 cm) may need to conduct the procedure repeated to remove stone fragments, it is not safe in some cases.

Ureteroscopy not given to patients after reconstructive operations carried out in the urinary tract, for example, after the transplant ureter.In such cases, the normal course of urinary tract is changed, which is why the procedure is difficult to perform, or even impossible.

How to prepare?

Before performing ureteroscopy patients with symptoms of stones in the ureter must pass a series of examinations:

  • electrocardiogram;
  • urinalysis;
  • complete blood count;
  • urography to determine the localization and size of stones, assessment of renal function;
  • urine culture.

results of these surveys help to determine what kind of procedure is necessary for the removal of stones in the lower or middle part of the ureter: ureteroscopy or other (endoscopic surgery, lithotripsy kidney).If the tests show the presence of infection, before the examination is required to carry out the treatment.

7 days before the operation the patient should stop using drugs, as part of which contains acetylsalicylic acid.On the day of surgery, the patient should not take food.Immediately prior to diagnosis examinee is necessary to empty the bladder.

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