Norm and pathology in the biochemical analysis of urine


1. indicators and standards

2. Explanation

Urine is a biological fluid, formed in the kidneys.It is designed for the excretion of various wastes.Today the most common analyzes of urine are clinical (general) and biochemical.Urinalysis determines the chemical and physical properties.Regarding the urine biochemical analysis, it is determined that certain organic products, which can judge the state of the internal organs and systems.

indicators and standards

main indicators of the biochemical analysis of urine are:

  • Creatine.
  • Urea.
  • Uric acid.
  • urinary electrolytes (magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium).
  • amylase.
  • Creatinine.
  • Acetone.
  • protein.
  • Chlorine.

In addition to these substances, the urine may contain a variety of other elements to take into account in the diagnosis.

To make a correct diagnosis, the medical expert must necessarily know the rules of all the indicators of biochemical analysis of urine, which he assigns to the patient.

Standards biochemical analysis of urine:

  • urine density - from 1.012 to 1.022 g / l.
  • daily amount of urine - from 1000 to 1200 ml.
  • Chloro - from 100 to 250 mmol per day.
  • Potassium - from 38 to 82 mmol per day.
  • Calcium - from 2.5 to 6.2 mmol per day.
  • Acetone - is normally absent.
  • Alpha-amylase - from 10 to 1240 U / l.
  • Sodium - from 100 to 260 mmol per day.
  • Urea - from 333 to 587 mmol per day.
  • Uric acid - from 0.4 to 1 gram per day.
  • protein - up to 0.033 g / l.

Any deviations from the norms indicate a particular pathology.To make a correct diagnosis, it is necessary to take into account all the parameters together.Make an accurate conclusion can only be an experienced professional.


While deciphering the biochemical analysis of urine medical professionals pay attention to a number of indicators, such as the common man easily confused.Below are the main biochemical parameters of urine, as well as their interpretation.

daily amount of urine. This indicator makes it possible to draw conclusions about the functioning of the kidneys and the presence of various pathological conditions.Low values ​​may indicate acute nephritis, toxemia, urolithiasis, mercury or arsenic poisoning.In addition, the low volume of urine occurs when insufficient fluid intake.

density. Low density urine often indicates a violation of the concentration of kidney function, as well as evidence of the contracted kidney.

Sodium. For this indicator, controlled flow, metabolism and excretion of a chemical element from the body.As a rule, the rate is taken into account in diseases of the adrenal glands, cranial trauma, renal disease and diabetes.

Potassium. According to this indicator in deciphering the biochemical analysis of urine reveal toxicity, renal disease and evaluate hormone therapy.

Chlorine. Increased level of chlorine in the biochemical analysis of urine indicates dehydration.Speaking of low chlorine concentration, it indicates the presence of renal disease, and adrenal.

Albumin. Abnormal content of the substance in urine indicates the development of nephropathy.

Calcium. This chemical element is involved in the various processes that occur in the human body.The increase in calcium concentration talks about osteoporosis syndrome Cushing's overdose and vitamin D. Reducing the level of calcium in the urine indicates rickets, acute nephritis and malignant bone tumors.

alpha-amylase. Amylase is an enzyme which generates a pancreas with salivary glands.An increase of its concentration in urine biochemical analysis indicates salivary gland disease and pancreas disease.

Microalbuminuria. This parameter characterizes the rate of albumin excretion from the body.According to this index, doctors tend to determine how damaged the kidneys work for people suffering from diabetes.

Urea. Urea is the end product of protein metabolism.Low levels of the substance in the urine is a consequence of renal or hepatic failure.Increasing urea concentration indicates an intense breakdown of proteins.

Uric acid. Increasing the level of this element in the urine indicates the presence of gout or myeloproliferative disorders.Reducing the concentration of uric acid indicates renal failure and metabolic disorder (metabolic).

protein. presence of protein in urine indicates the presence of diabetes, infections, allergies and autoimmune diseases.

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