The structure , functions of the trachea , as well as organ pathology


1. avilable trachea

2. main functions of the trachea

3. Possible diseases

4. Tracheal intubation

The trachea is aan important part of the respiratory tract and connects the larynx to the bronchi.The trachea - a hollow tubular body through which air enters the lungs.It begins at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra and ends at the level of the fifth thoracic.In front of the trachea in the neck level is the thyroid gland, and behind it is adjacent the esophagus.On either side of the trachea is neuro-vascular bundle.


tracheal intubation structure of the study of the structure can be seen that in cross-section consists of four layers: mucosa, submucosa, and cartilage of the adventitia.

The mucous membrane consists of a multi-layered ciliated epithelium, which lies on the basal basis.It allocates mucus in small quantities.

submucosal layer - friable and fibrous connective tissue.There are many small blood vessels and nerve fibers.The cartilaginous part cons

ists of hyaline cartilage and incomplete takes two-thirds of the tracheal tube circumference.Behind, on the part of the esophagus, is membranous wall, which ensures the normal breathing process during the passage of food.

adventitia - a thin connective sheath that covers the outer part of the tube.This structure of the trachea allows it to perform all the necessary functions.

main functions of the trachea

The main function of the trachea - carrying air to the lungs.At the same time it also has a protective function.Its inner surface is covered with ciliated epithelium, some of the cells that secrete mucus.If here get smaller foreign bodies such as dust, they are covered with slime and with the help of mucociliary movements are displayed in the throat.In addition, the list of features include the trachea resonator function.She pushes the air to the vocal cords and helps to create sound.

Possible diseases

All diseases that may develop in the body, can be divided into three groups: damage, birth defects and other diseases, including cancer of the trachea.Among the malformations release:

  • agenesis - lack of communication with the trachea lungs, in which children are almost not viable;
  • occlusive stenosis (in the tube there are obstacles) and compression (with compression of the trachea tumors or abnormal blood vessels);
  • fistulas, which are rare and may be incomplete or complete, opening in the skin of the neck and trachea;
  • cysts;
  • diverticula and expansion of the trachea.

One of the most common diseases of the body is an inflammation of the trachea.Tracheal inflammation can be acute or chronic.Usually it is combined with bronchitis.Inflammation of the trachea can be caused by a variety of viruses, bacteria and fungi.

Enough dangerous are a variety of tumors.Most tumors in children are benign, and with adequate treatment for a speedy recovery comes.In adults, the benign tumors and cancer of the trachea occur with equal frequency.Tracheal - a dangerous disease that often leads to death.

Tracheal intubation

Tracheal intubation - is the introduction of a special tube in it.This is a rather complicated procedure, which, however, in some situations is essential and can save the life of the patient.Tracheal intubation is performed at terminal conditions, acute respiratory failure, pulmonary edema, tracheal obturation, severe poisoning associated with impaired respiratory function.It helps to ease breathing rapidly, ensuring the airway, preventing swelling and allow the aspiration of the bronchial tubes.

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