Mediastinum - lymph nodes , tumor , lymphadenopathy


1. Brief description of the mediastinum

2. Neoplasms of the mediastinum

3. clinical picture of mediastinal tumors

4. mediastinal lymphadenopathy

Mediastinum -this anatomical space, the middle of the chest.This limited space behind the spine and front - sternum.On either side of the mediastinum are pleural cavity.Currently anatomists divide the body on the bottom, top, back, middle and anterior mediastinum.

Brief description of the mediastinum

posterior mediastinum in front of the limited pericardium and trachea, and in the back - the spine.This department is the body thoracic duct, descending aorta, and hemiazygos unpaired vein, the esophagus and the posterior mediastinal lymph nodes.

Structure middle mediastinum: vena cava, heart, brachiocephalic trunk and the brachiocephalic vein, trachea, main bronchus, pulmonary artery and vein, ascending aorta, aortic arch and diaphragmatic veins.

anterior mediastinum rear limited brachiocephalic trunk, brachiocephalic vein an

d the pericardium, and the front - sternum.In this space are located mediastinal lymph nodes, thoracic artery, internal thoracic vein and the thymus gland (thymus).

Lower mediastinum is divided into the back, middle and front parts.It is limited by the upper edges of the pericardium and diaphragm.

upper mediastinum has all the anatomical structures that are above the upper edge of the pericardium.It is limited to the upper aperture of the sternum and the line drawn between the intervertebral disc Th4-Th5 and the angle of the chest.

Neoplasms Neoplasms of the mediastinum

above anatomical spaces are as true mediastinal tumor, and excellent localization, course and aetiology cyst and tumor diseases.Every new formation of this body is formed from tissues of different origin, joining only anatomical boundaries.

mediastinal neoplasms are subdivided into:

  • Psevdoopuholevye disease (parasitic cysts, Besnier-Schaumann's disease, vascular malformations of major development, the defeat of mediastinal lymph nodes in tuberculosis, and so on.).
  • primary neoplasms.
  • Tumors bodies that are part of the mediastinum.
  • Secondary malignant neoplasm (tumor metastases organs that are in the lymph nodes of the mediastinum).
  • tumor tissue, limiting the mediastinum.

clinical picture of mediastinal tumors

Judging by responses doctors, including special mediastinal tumors are detected, usually in the middle and young age.Neoplasms of the body may be a long time to manifest itself.They are found in most cases to prevention trials.

main symptoms that characterize the disease of the mediastinum are:

  • retraction of the eyeball, ptosis century, and pupil dilation (swelling formed in the boundary of the sympathetic trunk).
  • will shower voices observed in lesions of the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
  • Violation of the passage of food to the throat.
  • noise and heaviness in the head, chest pain, swelling and cyanosis of the face, shortness of breath, swelling of the veins of the neck and chest.
  • Non-Intensive pain at the site of tumors that can be given in the interscapular region, shoulder and neck.

Later stages of the aforementioned organ disease characterized by general weakness, fever, swelling of the limbs, heart rhythm disturbances and artralgicheskim syndrome.

Treatment of mediastinal tumors exclusively surgical.

mediastinal lymphadenopathy

lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes) the mediastinum observed, usually in lymphomas, metastatic carcinoma and some other non-neoplastic diseases (tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and so on.).

mediastinal lymphadenopathy accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • Increased mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • loss of body weight.
  • sweating.
  • Fever.
  • development of upper respiratory tract infection (sore throat, tonsillitis, pharyngitis).
  • Splenomegaly.
  • hepatomegaly.

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