Larynx - structure, functions , possible diseases


1. structure of the larynx

2. Diseases of the larynx

3. Treatment larynx

throat - is the upper part of the breathing tube, which is at the level of the fourth-sedmogo vertebrae.This body is attached to the sides of schitopodyazychnoy gland, as well as by schitopodyazychnoy membrane connected to the hyoid bone.The larynx acts as a motion device having a cartilage, which are connected with ligaments and joints muscles, making it possible to adjust the variation of the glottis and vocal cords.

structure of the larynx

structure of the larynx - a skeleton of paired and unpaired cartilages.By unpaired cartilages are: epiglottic, thyroid and cricoid cartilages.Man cartilages are wedge-shaped, rozhkovidnye and arytenoid cartilage.Cartilage above body are interconnected ligaments and joints.Regarding the free space, it is filled membranes.During the movement of air occurs tension of the vocal cords, after which each cartilage begins to play a role in shaping the sound.Movement of

the cartilage of the larynx adjust the front neck muscles.

Home laryngeal function - is the formation of sounds and speech.Incoming air through the larynx, provoking oscillation of the vocal cords, resulting in the formation of sounds.The circulating air flow in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity is regulated by the nervous system.

throat has muscles of the vocal apparatus, which anatomists have divided into:

  • muscle tension HS (vocal cords);
  • muscle relaxation HS;
  • muscle expansion HS;
  • GS muscle contraction.

Diseases of the larynx

Illnesses larynx tend to be allergic, infectious and inflammatory in nature.The most common diseases of the larynx are:

  • Acute laryngitis (inflammation of the mucous layer of the larynx).The disease occurs as a result of endogenous (severe ailments of the digestive system, mucosal atrophy, allergies and reduced immunity) and exogenous (irritation of the aforementioned body, hypothermia, the effect on the mucous layer of chemicals, gas, dust, as well as the reception is very hot or verycold liquid or food) factors.Laryngitis often occurs during adolescence, especially when it comes to boys.Another cause of the disease can be bacterial flora (coronavirus, rhinovirus, influenza virus and Streptococcus).
  • Laryngeal sore throat - an acute infectious disease, whose main characteristics are: inflammation of the lingual surface of the epiglottis, the thickening of the mucous membrane of the larynx, as well as the defeat of her lymph tissue.
  • laryngeal stenosis - a narrowing of the analyzed organ, which prevents air from circulating normally in the lower respiratory tract.Stenosis of the larynx and traheicheskogo laringicheskogo type are treated as one disease.With a very fast current of stenosis of the larynx, as well as the appearance of a high risk of serious violations of respiratory function requires emergency medical care.
  • Laryngeal edema.This abnormal condition develops, as a rule, in allergic reactions.Laryngeal edema is accompanied by inflammation of the mucosa and narrowing of the lumen of the larynx.The main instigators acute laryngeal edema are: pathological processes and allergic reactions in the trachea and larynx, cancer, trauma and infectious diseases of these organs.

larynx Treatment

larynx Treatment is carried out depending on the type and cause of the disease.If the disease is allergic in nature, the patient is prescribed antihistamines.If the disease is an inflammatory origin, medspetsialisty prescribed anti-inflammatory drugs.With regard to the nature of infectious diseases, they are usually treated with antibiotics.

In addition, during the illness must adhere to silence and to avoid even the minimum voltage ligaments.Heat, tranquility, and also compresses the neck also be present in the treatment larynx.

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