Epilepsy - causes, symptoms , seizures , treatment


1. Causes of epilepsy

2. Symptoms of epilepsy

3. features of the disease in children

4. Treatment of diseases

Ā«Hercu-disease "," disease of the divine "," epilepsy "- all names for common chronic neurological disease, better known as epilepsy.In ancient times it was attributed to divine intervention, in the Middle Ages - obsession.Today it is known that the symptoms of epilepsy are associated with episodes of electrical activity of the individual parts or the entire brain.Having lost the "divine" status, the disease has been extensively studied and is now effective treatments for epilepsy have been developed that allow us to reduce the risk of attacks to a minimum.

Causes of epilepsy

The brain is a huge cluster of nerve cells that generate and transmit information to each other in the form of electrical impulses.Normally, the amount of electric charge, the direction and speed of its transmission are controlled.But when the electrical activity of the brain is disrupte

d, there is the main cause of epilepsy - electrical stimulation of the brain takes the form of erratic outbursts.Outbreaks can be transmitted to the muscles, causing them to a strong reduction, but can lead to the activation of a huge number of nerve cells, which apparently is expressed in a loss of consciousness or amnesia - the classic symptoms of epilepsy.

Treatment of epilepsy is complicated by the fact that the disease may have symptoms, it is not related to the seizure, and the reason they are often unable to determine.

main causes of epilepsy determined during clinical observations.Children from birth to one year it can be a traumatic brain injury during childbirth.Epilepsy in children up to two years is associated with a temporary increase in temperature and lack of calcium, magnesium and vitamin B6.

in age from 2 to 14 years are often the causes of epilepsy is unknown.In adults, epilepsy associated with the development of brain tumors, stroke, alcohol withdrawal, or medication, injuries, poisoning or an overdose of cocaine, strychnine or lead.Diabetics cause of epilepsy can be a decrease in blood glucose levels.

In rare cases, the cause of epilepsy can be a knee-jerk reaction to strong stimuli - the smells, bright colors, high air temperature or heat stroke, touching parts of the body.By the more common causes of epilepsy include brain abscess, infection, while seizures arise against headache, fever, vomiting, and loss of consciousness.

in chronic kidney disease and liver epileptic seizure can cause disruption of the internal organs.The reason for epilepsy can also be organic brain disease, such as cancer, stroke, trauma, high intracranial pressure or bleeding.

Symptoms of epilepsy

Each patient development of the disease depends on the individual characteristics and form of the disease.But if you judge the clinical picture as a whole, the symptoms of epilepsy can be divided into precursors and actual symptoms of an epileptic seizure.

heralded attack can be called a collection of sensations that are experiencing ill for about a few minutes, hours or days before the attack.Each patient feels them, some call it epileptic aura.These symptoms of epilepsy or precursors include changes in taste, smell, anxiety, general tension, the effect of "deja vu", as well as just a feeling fit.

epileptic seizures in most cases lasts from a few seconds up to two minutes.At this time, the patient has a strong olfactory or visual hallucinations.There is a loss of consciousness and muscle tone, lack of response to the world around us, rhythmic involuntary movements of the limbs.The patient spontaneously tilts his head or torso forward or turn his head to the side.Against the background of the loss of consciousness and seizures may occur involuntary defecation.

epileptic seizures can affect the entire brain, and some zone.In the first case it is called generalized seizures, in the second - partial.When partial seizures of epilepsy symptoms may occur depending on what proportion of the brain is affected.If this is the parietal lobe, there may be tingling, numbness, electrifying.When occipital epilepsy appear visual hallucinations.But more often the main symptom of epilepsy - it fits in one of the parts of the body or limbs, which can capture the whole body in the event of severe seizures.

The course of the disease in children

It is worth remembering that epilepsy in children is different from adults causes, moreover, not all seizures associated with epilepsy, and therefore do not always require treatment.For example, the phenomenon of febrile convulsions looks like an epileptic fit, but develops on the background of elevated temperature and sometimes requires only receiving antipyretic and anticonvulsant drugs, as well as careful observation.

Epilepsy Symptoms following children: the rhythmic contraction of all muscles of the body (convulsions), fainting, involuntary loss of urine and stool, a temporary stop breathing, strong folding arms at the elbows and straightening legs, chaotic twitching of the hands or feet, puckering lips, head turningaside or throwing the head back.

Some forms of epilepsy in children not recognized by their parents, for example, with absence epilepsy symptoms are quite marked: the child simply for some time freezes and does not respond to the world around us.It can freeze in mid-sentence, freeze gaze, concentrated at one point, did not respond to the call.Once epilepsy seizure stops, the child does not remember what happened and quietly continued the action started.In such cases, the treatment of epilepsy is often untimely.

Atonic attacks - another form of epilepsy in children, which is characterized by sudden loss of consciousness and a strong relaxation of the muscles.Outwardly, it looks like fainting, but if the child suffered several of syncope, it is required to show the pediatrician as soon as possible to diagnose the disease and begin treatment of epilepsy.

infantile spasms - kind of epilepsy attack, in which the child is sharply presses her hands to her chest, head or torso tilts forward and straightens his legs.Such epilepsy often occur in the morning and last for a few seconds.This form of epilepsy in children can be observed at the age of 2 - 3 years and go to five years, or switch to another form.

Treatment of diseases

People who suffer from epilepsy often face misunderstanding of others, especially children.Epileptics can not engage in normal physical exercise and participate in sports, his unusual behavior during attacks often cause rejection classmates.In adult patients with epilepsy can not drive a car and you need to constantly monitor the mental state.

If the disease is acquired, the treatment of epilepsy allow virtually eliminate attacks.Otherwise, do not cure the disease completely fail.

Still, the correct treatment of epilepsy seizures allows us to reduce to a minimum and lead a normal life.Today, for the treatment of epilepsy medication use and non-drug means.To medical methods for the treatment of epilepsy are anticonvulsant medications (anticonvulsants), neurotropic drugs.They can be used drugs that inhibit or stimulate the transmission of nerve excitation, psychoactive and psychotropic substances, as well as nootropics.

From non-drug methods of treatment of epilepsy surgery are used, the treatment method of Voigt (activation of motor reflexes), osteopathic treatment, the study of external stimuli that increase and reduce the frequency of attacks, and the ketogenic diet.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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