Encephalopathy - types , extent , methods of treatment


1. Types

2. Discirculatory encephalopathy

3. Degrees encephalopathy

4. Symptoms

5. Diagnostics

6. Treatment encephalopathy

encephalopathy - a pathological brain damage due to the death of nerve cells, which is caused by oxygen deficiency of brain tissue and impaired blood supply.Moreover, it is - a comprehensive term used to describe various noninflammatory etiologies processes that affect structural or functional brain.The disease can occur in both children and adults.


There are such kinds of encephalopathy as congenital and acquired.

Congenital disease is also called perinatal encephalopathy.It occurs due to the action of damaging factors at birth, birth defects or genetic abnormalities in brain development.

Thus, the main feature of congenital encephalopathy is that it most often occurs and is caused by abnormal processes during pregnancy or childbirth.

Among the factors that provoke the development of perinatal encephalopathy, isolated:

  • oxygen starvation of the fetus, umbilical cord entanglement;
  • injury during childbirth;
  • complications of pregnancy and preterm labor;
  • various diseases of the mother during pregnancy;
  • large mass of fetal body and shortness of disclosure of the birth canal;
  • variety neuroinfections.

Symptoms of perinatal encephalopathy include restless child's behavior, inadequate reaction to light and sound, frequent crying, throwing the head back, frequent vomiting, bulging eyes.

In the case of these symptoms, the expert is able to diagnose "perinatal encephalopathy" in the first month of life.

In children with this pathology occurs late or weak cry, violation of heartbeat, lack of sucking reflex.

The sooner parents can start the appropriate treatment, the greater the likelihood of eliminating serious complications, such as cerebral palsy or epilepsy.

If the symptoms of brain damage is not visible immediately, but after a long time, we speak of residual encephalopathy.

The disease occurs after a certain time after perinatal encephalopathy.

Identify residual encephalopathy is difficult, because the symptoms of the disease in the perinatal period may be minor and transient, and relapse may occur after long period of time.Trigger mechanism residual encephalopathy may be inflammatory or infectious diseases, traumatic brain injury, increased blood pressure.

residual difference from perinatal encephalopathy is that it exposed not only children but also adults.

There are such kinds of acquired encephalopathies:

  • Posttraumatic;
  • Toxic;
  • Radiation;
  • Metabolic;
  • Discirculatory;
  • Vascular.

Discirculatory encephalopathy

Discirculatory encephalopathy - a slowly progressive impairment of brain blood supply, resulting in a breach of its duties.

There are such forms as a vascular encephalopathy:

  • mixed encephalopathy;
  • venous;
  • atherosclerotic;
  • hypertension.

Degrees encephalopathy

are three degrees of encephalopathy.

the first degree there are memory loss, irritability, disturbed sleep, headaches.

the second degree of encephalopathy symptoms are more pronounced.Headaches become permanent, there is memory loss, sleep disturbances, there is lethargy and apathy.

severe changes in the brain tissue occurs on the third degree of encephalopathy and symptoms worse.Disturbed speech occur paresis develops vascular parkinsonism.

Symptoms The symptoms of encephalopathy are very diverse and depend on the stage and form of the disease.At the beginning of the disease can be observed decreased performance and memory, general fatigue, lethargy and sleep disorders.At physical examination, the expert may be noted reduced vision and hearing, loss of coordination.

With the progression of the disease observed severe headaches, vomiting, nausea, dizziness, consciousness disorders, paresis, mental disorders.


order to diagnose this disease, you need to carefully examine the patient's medical history.

When congenital encephalopathy is necessary to analyze the facts of violations of fetal development, birth trauma, heavy pregnancy.

In adult patients need to know about cases of traumatic brain injury, the presence of acquired or hereditary disease and metabolic diseases, as well as alcohol abuse.

shall be required:

  • EEG (electroencephalography);
  • CT (computed tomography);
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging);
  • NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance).

addition may appoint a general and biochemical analysis of blood and urine.

if necessary, may conduct a study of cerebrospinal fluid.

Treatment encephalopathy

First of all, the treatment of encephalopathy is aimed at elimination of symptoms, and treatment of the disease, which is triggered brain damage.

Treatment encephalopathy requires compliance with conditions of work and rest, sleep normalization, with the exception of various stresses, as well as the removal of neurotic symptoms.

the treatment of encephalopathy are widely used such drugs that reduce intracranial pressure and prevent the development of seizures, as well as improve brain circulation.

At intervals two or three times a year, it is necessary to carry out metabolic and vasoactive therapy.

In addition, it proposes and the psychological impact on the psyche of the patient by means of psychotherapeutic conversations and autogenic training.

important are also moderate exercise, fresh air, as well as compliance with the rules of a balanced diet.

If there will be a worsening of psychiatric symptoms, the patient must consult a neuropsychiatrist.

In severe encephalopathy experts recommend hemodialysis, hemoperfusion, parenteral nutrition, ventilation.Additional treatments may be encephalopathy reflexology, physiotherapy and breathing exercises.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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