Endocarditis - types , symptoms , treatment, prevention


1. causes of disease

2. Infective endocarditis

3. septic endocarditis

4. treatment of endocarditis

The heart is a hollowmuscular system, consisting of three layers.The outer thin layer of connective tissue called the pericardium.Middle layer of muscle - the myocardium.The inner layer, which forms the heart valves, and connecting it to the tissue lining the cavity - endocardium.Inflammation of the inner layer is called endocarditis.

It's quite a serious disease, which, if protracted course can cause inflammation of the myocardium, and various heart defects.Endocarditis promotes necrotic-ulcerative endocarditis changes that often causes circulatory disorders in the arteries and increasing the fragility of capillary walls.In suffering endocarditis occurs the risk of heart disease, pleurisy, nephritis, anemia, liver and spleen.

causes of disease

Endocarditis caused streptococci, staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, tubercle bacillus, various fungi and bacteria.Their i

ntroduction into the heart cavity and development usually occurs in the presence of endocardial damage and some defects in heart muscle structure.However, endocarditis can occur with a healthy heart as a complication as a result of a disease.

common causes of the disease are:

  • Rheumatism;
  • Sepsis;
  • Tuberculosis;
  • uremia;
  • Syphilis;
  • AIDS;
  • Myocardial infarction;
  • The physical and psychological strain;
  • Immunosuppression.

The disease is divided into two types - infective endocarditis and bacterial endocarditis.

Infective endocarditis

Infective endocarditis occurs in lesions of pathogenic bacteria, fungal organisms, streptococcus or staphylococcus endocardium, heart valves and adjacent large vessels.Cause infection inflammatory process can lead to complications and cause liver, kidney, spleen.

most at risk of occurrence of infective endocarditis people with pathological changes in the endocardium or the heart valves.If a person observed rheumatic, traumatic, atherosclerotic lesions of valves, the risk of infective endocarditis disease increases significantly.And increases its long-term intravenous infusion.Often infective endocarditis developed on the site of a prosthetic valve.In this case, the pathogen is Streptococcus generally.

Infective endocarditis can be acute or subacute.Especially difficult the illness caused by fungal organisms.Symptoms of endocarditis with acute course are:

  • high body temperature;
  • Weakness and fatigue;
  • Chills;
  • Cough;
  • Weight Loss;
  • increased sweating;
  • Shortness of breath;
  • Chest pain;
  • Vomiting;
  • rash on the skin.

Symptoms of endocarditis in subacute and protracted course is not so clearly defined.The temperature is often kept in the normal range, there is no rash on the skin.The disease in this case is detected during a medical examination when the detected increase in spleen, heart murmur, the presence of microorganisms in the blood, increasing the eye retina, etc.

septic endocarditis

septic endocarditis is a special form of sepsis caused by gold and white staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pathogenic fungi.Microbes are actively developing with congenital heart defects and endocardial lesions.Particularly high risk of bacterial endocarditis in people with rheumatic or congenital heart disease.

disease causes necrotic and ulcerative lesions of the endocardium, contributes to inflammation and degenerative changes in the myocardium and pericardium.The main symptoms of this type of endocarditis are:

  • Prolonged fever or sudden jumps in body temperature up to 40 ° C;
  • Chills;
  • weakness;
  • pain in the joints;
  • pale with an earthy shade, leather;
  • Decreased appetite;
  • Pain in the spleen, kidney, hands, feet;
  • Clubbing hands.

septic endocarditis is usually protracted and can trigger the development of heart disease, pleurisy, nephritis, anemia and other diseases.The acute course of the disease is less common.Symptoms of acute endocarditis are similar to symptoms such as protracted septic endocarditis.But they are more pronounced and tolerated a lot harder.

Acute bacterial endocarditis may occur as a complication of infectious diseases, after any injury or localization of sepsis after surgery.

treatment of endocarditis endocarditis

Treatment depends on the type of disease, provoked by his appearance, and its severity.When septic endocarditis treatment usually consists in the elimination of foci of infection by using large doses of antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs.During the therapy is carried out continuously monitoring heart function, regularly repeat the ECG and echocardiogram, blood tests are taken for culture.

Treatment of infectious endocarditis type involves conducting antimicrobial therapy for an extended period.In severe immunological pathologies at certain stages of the treatment of endocarditis added hormones.If antibiotic therapy is ineffective, use non-drug methods of treatment - plasmapheresis and AUIB (UV-irradiated blood autotransfusion).

In those cases where, in spite of active treatment of endocarditis, there is a growing heart failure, there is a question about the surgery.Operations are carried out and when the micro-organisms in the blood are found in large numbers, even after long-term therapy.If the treatment of endocarditis with antibiotics is successful, but there is significant damage to the heart valves, surgical methods can be used, too.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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