Endemic goiter - Causes, Symptoms , Treatment


1. The causes of endemic goiter

2. symptoms

3. Diagnosis and treatment of endemic goiter

Endemic goiter - a disease which is associated withenlargement of the thyroid gland due to iodine deficiency.This disease develops in people who live in areas with iodine deficiency in the environment.

Endemic goiter in children refers to the most common iodine deficiency diseases.It accounts for about 25% of all endocrine diseases in children.In most children the disease is diagnosed in adolescence.

The causes of endemic goiter

normal development of the human body is in direct relation to the proper operation of the endocrine system, including the activity of the thyroid gland.Chronic iodine deficiency contributes to the proliferation of breast tissue and disruption of its work.If insufficient intake of iodine in the body a person, an increase of the thyroid gland, called goiter.

Depending on the cause of endemic goiter is iodine deficiency are two types:

- absolute iodine defic

iency - the cause is deficiency of iodine in food and water;

- relative iodine deficiency - a cause are diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, intestinal malabsorption of iodine, congenital thyroid disease, taking certain medicines.

Experts point to factors that provoke the development of endemic goiter in children and adults:

  • hereditary factor;
  • contamination of drinking water by chemical elements, which complicate the absorption of iodine (nitrates, urochrome, calcium);
  • genetic defects Gomonov production by the thyroid gland;
  • deficit in food and environmental elements that contribute to the absorption of iodine (zinc, selenium, manganese, molybdenum);
  • taking medicines that inhibit the transport of iodine into the thyroid cells;
  • chronic infectious and inflammatory diseases, especially worm infestation;
  • poor social and hygienic living and working conditions.


Symptoms of endemic goiter are directly dependent on the functional state of the thyroid gland, goiter size, general condition of the body.

Even at an early stage of the disease, with normal amounts of thyroid and virtually normal levels of thyroid hormones appear the first symptoms of endemic goiter.The patient feels fatigue, general weakness, discomfort in the heart, headaches.Such complaints point to the first malfunction of the cardiovascular and nervous systems.

With the development of the disease increase the size of the crop leads to compression of nearby organs.As a result, the patient feels the pressure in the neck, which increases in the horizontal position.In addition, there is difficulty in breathing, sometimes swallowing.When tracheal compression due to the symptoms of endemic goiter join a dry cough, frequent bouts of breathlessness.

In most cases, found the location of the crop on the front of the neck region.But, also, there are atypical localization - around the trachea (the ring), retrosternal, zatrahealnaya, lingual, sublingual.

Symptoms of endemic goiter in children are more pronounced than in adults.In addition, the disease in children can have a severe complication - endemic cretinism.It is expressed in central nervous system disorders, delayed physical and intellectual development.Sometimes these manifestations join tongue-tied, deaf-mutism, a delay in the maturation of bone tissue.

Diagnosis and treatment of endemic goiter

There are standard methods of patient examination in the diagnosis of endemic goiter.

1.Provedenie general analysis of blood and urine.

2.Ultrazvukovoe research thyroid gland.With this instrumental method of diagnosis set form of the disease (nodular or diffuse goiter).The functional state of the gland is estimated using its radioisotope scan.

3.Opredelenie excretion (excretion) of iodine in the urine during the day.In the presence of the disease is usually reduced excretion figures.

4.Analiz blood thyroid hormone - TSH, thyroglobulin, T3, T4.

5. In the case of large goiter to detect esophageal compression is performed X-rays of the esophagus.

6. When the diagnosis of nodular goiter additional biopsy of the thyroid gland.With its help determine the benign or malignant disease.

choice of method of treatment of endemic goiter depends on its size and the functional state of the thyroid gland.

main methods of treatment of this disease - conservative therapy (use of thyroid drugs) and surgery.

Conservative therapy is indicated for diffuse forms of goiter and nodular form, if there is one node with a diameter of no more than three centimeters.Drug treatment of thyroid start with low doses and then to gradually increase the maximum dose.To monitor the success of treatment every three months to carry out laboratory tests to determine the main indicators.

In the absence of the effect of the conservative therapy nodular goiter within six months there is a need for surgery.

Surgical treatment of endemic goiter as shown in the large scale crop, mechanical squeezing them respiratory tract, nerves, blood vessels, the esophagus, it is suspected malignant degeneration.

the treatment of endemic goiter in children surgery is used only in the case of goiter compression of adjacent organs.For children, use economical resection of the thyroid gland.

to prevent the development of endemic goiter is very important disease prevention.There are three methods of preventing this disease.

1.Massovaya.Prevention across the country, an area that lies in the introduction of iodine in foods, such as iodized salt.

2.Gruppovaya.Prevention of high-risk groups for the development of iodine deficiency diseases (pregnant and lactating women, children, teenagers).It is carried out by long-term use of drugs, which contain physiologically appropriate doses of iodine.

3.Individualnaya.Prevention in individuals through regular intake of drugs containing iodine.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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