Emphysema - forms , symptoms, treatment , prognosis


1. factors that trigger the development of emphysema

2. clinical picture

3. bullous emphysema

4. main treatments

5. prognosis of pulmonary emphysema

emphysema - a pathological condition of the lung tissue, which is characterized by its lightness increased due to the expansion of the alveoli, as well as the destruction of alveolar walls.The disease occurs in males twice as often than those of the fairer sex.The risk of developing emphysema in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary illnesses is very high, especially after 55 years.

factors that trigger the development of emphysema

At the present time there are many causes and risk factors of pulmonary emphysema, which occurs almost every day people.Some of them we will now consider.

  • The main cause of this disease is smoking.Cigarette smoke from smokers in the alveoli causes irreversible.Therefore, the detection of emphysema, the patient must immediately give up this bad habit.Complete cessation of smoking is s
    ignificantly improves mood and stops the destructive processes in the lung tissue.
  • proved that emphysema can also occur due to air pollution and other environmental hazards.
  • There are cases when the disease develops due to a deficiency of alpha-1-antitrypsin.Smoking in this pathology it is considered the main provocateur.
  • Inflammatory processes in the alveoli and bronchi are also causes of emphysema.
  • addition to the above factors, the illness can provoke regular inhalation of various chemicals, dust, cement and so on.

clinical picture

The standard symptoms of emphysema include: dyspnea, cyanosis (bluish color of the skin and mucous membranes), the increase in chest size (barrel), a significant decrease in respiratory movements, bulging or expansionsupraclavicular areas, expansion or bulging of the gaps between the ribs.

the early stages of a major symptom of emphysema is shortness of breath when significant physical loads.At the outset, it is very rare, and most often in the wintertime.But if the disease progresses, the dyspnea then appear at any time of the year.In patients experiencing "acute", "snapping", short breath and a long exhale.

In severe cases of emphysema symptoms are alarming, since patients appear cyanosis: language acquires a blue hue, nails and lips become bluish, especially after physical exertion.

Another notable symptom of emphysema is weight loss.This is due to the fact that patients spend too much energy intensive operation of the respiratory muscles.

bullous emphysema

Many doctors believe that the bullous emphysema - a manifestation of hereditary or genetic disorders.With regard to the etiology and pathogenesis of this form of emphysema, they are still not fully understood.

bullous emphysema is characterized by the formation of air bubbles of various sizes (bullae), which are located, generally, in the edge regions of the lungs.These bubbles can be single and multiple and widespread, and local.Their sizes range from 1 to 10 centimeters.This type of emphysema is one feature - the early development of respiratory failure.It develops not only because most of emphysema, but also due to compression of the surrounding healthy tissue bulls.Work area with bubbles is greatly disturbed.In short, the symptoms of emphysema bullous form is very serious, difficult and dangerous.

main treatments

  • Special breathing exercises.It helps to improve gas exchange.The course of treatment lasts 21 days.

  • complete smoking cessation.This is the main principle of prevention and treatment of pulmonary emphysema.
  • Antibacterials.Most often this disease used anticholinergic drugs (Atrovent, Flomax), theophylline (teopek, aminophylline), beta-2 sympathomimetic (salbutamol berotek).The intensity of the therapy and the choice of drug depends on the symptoms.In the treatment of emphysema antibacterials combined with expectorants.
  • Aeroionotherapy in the treatment of emphysema in recent years has won a high trust yourself enough, since it shows excellent results in the elimination of respiratory failure moments.Full course is 20 days.
  • Even in the treatment of emphysema, a very important point considered giving up strenuous exercise.

surgical treatment is recommended for bullous emphysema.The essence of this treatment is to remove the bull.Such operations are performed via the classical and access (opening of the thorax) and the endoscope (through puncture the chest).Removal of bull hinders the development of dangerous complications such as pneumothorax.

Traditional medicine in the treatment of emphysema provides various tools for maintenance therapy.The most commonly used herbs that possess bronchodilator effect, relieve inflammation and improve lung tissue trophism, facilitate sputum discharge and so on.Also, apply herbal and folk remedies that promote the prevention of infections and supporting the activity of the immune system.Just do not forget that the emphysema treatment of folk remedies is subsidiary, which means that it requires persistence, as well as a careful observance of the recommendations.

Home remedies:

  • When emphysema is very useful to inhale vapors potato "in uniform".
  • excellent way to combat emphysema is considered the juice of green tops of potatoes.It should be consumed daily, constantly increasing the dose.
  • Boiled potatoes, pieces of which can envelop the chest, is also a great folk remedy in the treatment of emphysema.

Herbs recommended for the treatment of emphysema:. Mint, lemon balm, thyme, sage, elecampane roots, buckwheat, potatoes, greens, eucalyptus leaves, the roots of licorice, marshmallow root, anise, horsetail herb, etc. These herbs can be used asin the form of fees, and separately, by preparing one of infusions and decoctions.

prognosis of pulmonary emphysema

In the absence of adequate therapy of emphysema, disease prognosis - unfavorable, since the progression of the disease (the development of cardiac and respiratory failure) lead to disability, as well as early disability.Also, it should be remembered, and that forecasts when emphysema individual.In most cases, a lot depends on the patients themselves - how thoroughly and seriously they relate to the recommendations of the attending physician;whether they are ready for the sake of their health to make some sacrifices?


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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