12 August

Electric shock - causes , types , first aid

Contents:

1. Causes electrical shocks

2. Types of electrical shocks

3. First aid for electrical accident

electrocution - a violation of the integrity and function of tissues and organs inthe action of the electric current.Depending on the power, voltage and current duration of exposure, body condition, environmental factors, the passage of the current loop location and other factors, there may be different types of electrical shocks.Passing through the body, the electric current causes a number of impacts - burns the individual parts of the body and internal tissues, violation of physical and chemical composition of blood, tissue rupture and broken bones, violation of internal bioelectric processes.The share of different types of electrical shocks for more than 2% of injuries around the world, many of them are fatal.

Causes electrical shocks

Trauma can result from direct contact with a current source or by contact arc in the vicinity of the source.The most common causes of electri

cal shocks - accidents related to the profession of electricians, representatives of building trades, handyman.Subject to the electrical equipment of the majority of injuries can be avoided.

What becomes immediate cause electric shock?For the occurrence of the injury need certain conditions - a life-threatening voltage and current, state of health of the victim, environmental parameters.

There is no consensus about the value of "safe" voltage or current.For example, in France, it is considered to be "safe" voltage of 24 V AC and 50 V DC for, in Russia likely cause electric shock is considered to be the voltage from 50 VAC.But we know that to even stress can cause death in 12 V. With regard to the current intensity, the rate of up to 10 mA for AC and up to 50 mA at a constant considered dangerous.

If we are dealing with an alternating current frequency of 50-60 Hz, then the current strength 0.6-1.5 mA victim experiencing only a slight trembling of the hands, with a current 2-3 mA - strong shaking at 5-7 mA- cramps, with 8-10 mA hands can still be torn away from the electrode, but such a current strength could already cause electric shock.At 20-25 mA tear impossible hands from the electrodes at 50-80 mA respiratory paralysis occurs and at 90-100 mA - heart failure.

When 0.6-3 mA constant current contact with the electrodes does not cause any sensations at 5-7 mA itching occurs at 8-10 mA - heating, at 20-25 mA - a slight contraction of the muscles.The cause of electrocution becomes amperage of 50-80 mA, when seizures occur, and shortness of breath, at 90-100 mA can occur respiratory paralysis.

degree of damage depends on the resistance of the human body, and it defines a number of features.For example, the resistance of the body in women less than men, this is due to the thickness of the skin, so if "neotpuskayuschego" men considered amperage of 11-12 mA, for women - only 7-8 mA.In children, the skin resistance is lower than in adults and the elderly.

External factors can also increase the severity of the injury, for example, the higher the ambient temperature, the higher the risk of electric shock.The higher the partial oxygen content of the air, the lower the sensitivity of the body to the current.The higher the humidity, the more likely injury arc.

damage and may vary depending on the path of the current loop.The most likely path: right hand - foot, left hand - legs, both arms - legs, head - foot, hand - hand.These "large" or "full" hazardous loop that captures the current area of ​​the heart.Less dangerous is considered "small" loop current leg - foot, which occurs when a person falls under the step voltage, the current path is not dangerous in itself, but if a person under its influence will fall, and the current can pass through life-threatening zone.

Types of electrical shocks

All electric shock, conventionally divided into two types of electrical shocks: local and general.

Local electrical accident - an expression of damage to the skin, soft tissues, ligaments, bones.These include electric contacts and arc burns of varying severity, sharply defined spots gray or pale yellow color appearing in the point where the current source (so-called electric signs).Local types of electrical shocks also include skin metallization (a phenomenon in which the upper layers of the skin penetrate the smallest metal particles, a variety of mechanical damage) and elektrooftalmiyu (inflammation of the outer eye membranes under the influence of a powerful stream of UV rays).

General electrocution - the so-called electric shocks, which are accompanied by spasmodic contractions of the muscles.Accepted provide four degrees of destruction:

- General electrical accident I degree.They are characterized by muscle cramps without loss of consciousness;

- General electric shock II degree.Accompanied by convulsions and loss of consciousness;

- General electric shock III degree.Loss of consciousness with impaired cardiac or respiratory functions;

- General electrocution IV degree.Clinical death.

First aid for electrical accident

In order to help the victim, you need to take care of their own security.Otherwise you will get yourself under pressure, and then first aid for electrical accident have already have you.Disconnect the source of destruction - switch off the device, try to pull out the electrical wires from the victim's hands.If this is not possible, you need to pull the victim from the power source, using the means of protection - a board or a wooden stick, insulated tools, rubber gloves, insulating supports, rubber-soled shoes, etc.

First aid for electrical accident must be provided as soon as the victim will be in a safe place.If he is unconscious, check pulse and breathing, and in their absence to carry out chest compressions combined with rescue breathing.If the pulse is stable and breathing, place the victim on his stomach, his head turned to one side - this will allow him to breathe and not choke on vomit.

situation may be different, but if the hand was a first aid kit, and burn marks are clearly visible on the affected skin, you can help with the electrical accident before the arrival of doctors.At burns place superimposed dry, clean bandage, and if the affected feet or hands, between your fingers laid cotton swabs or rolled bandages.Keep in mind that the victim needs to abundant drink, if he is conscious - let him drink as much fluid and immediately send it to the emergency room.

After providing first aid for electrical accident, the patient in need of treatment: it is appointed by oxygen therapy, dehydration means.At burns place superimposed aseptic dressings, injected tetanus serum.In severe injuries of tendons, bones, soft tissue, patients need rehabilitation operations.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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