Extrasystole - Causes, Symptoms , Treatments

Extrasystolia is a cardiac disease;the most common cardiac arrhythmia, which manifests itself in the premature and extraordinary contraction of the heart muscle. Each such abbreviation is called extrasystole.

Species and causes of extrasystole

Allocate atrial, ventricular, atrial-ventricular, sinus extrasystole. All these species received their names from the localization of the place of occurrence of extrasystoles.

Ventricular heart extrasystoles occur most often, they are always accompanied by a compensatory pause - an extended pause, which includes the time from an extraordinary contraction( extrasystoles) to a new self-contraction of the heart. Ventricular extrasystoles may appear in volleys( 2-4 in a row), may occur in different parts of the heart muscle( which is very dangerous).

Atrial extrasystoles are rare and usually indicate the organic origin of the disease. Due to the fact that after the atrial extrasystoles the compensatory pause is either very short or completely absent, the symp

toms of the extrasystole of this species are not at all felt by the patients at all.

Atrial-ventricular and sinus extrasystole is rare.

There are two large groups of factors that can serve as the causes of extrasystoles: functional and organic. Functional factors cause extrasystole in people with a healthy heart, but with disorders of other organs and systems. Organic factors are inextricably linked with diseases of the heart muscle( myocardium) and heart valves.

Thus, the functional causes of extrasystole include:

  • emotional disorders, nervous overstrain, stress;
  • overly intense mental and physical load;
  • alcohol abuse and smoking;
  • frequent use of spicy food, strong coffee and tea;
  • gastrointestinal diseases;
  • kidney disease, in particular the omission of the kidney;
  • thyroid disease;
  • diseases of the spine;
  • hormonal disorders;
  • hormonal effect during menstruation and menopause( a common cause of extrasystole in women);
  • deficiency in the body of vitamins and trace elements( mainly potassium).

Among the organic causes of extrasystole can be identified:

  • ischemic heart disease( insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle);
  • angina( attacks of severe chest pain) against ischemic disease;
  • suffered myocardial infarction( necrosis of a certain part of the cardiac muscle);
  • incorrectly treated, untreated or chronic myocarditis( inflammation of the heart muscle);
  • improperly treated, untreated or chronic endocarditis( inflammation of the inner shell of the heart);
  • various heart defects( defects in the structure of the heart and / or coronary vessels);
  • cardiomyopathy( damage to the heart muscle of unknown origin);
  • hypertension( tendency to increased pressure).

Symptoms of the disease

It is not uncommon for the symptoms of extrasystole to be mild and the patient does not even know about her illness, and her presence is determined only by the results of an electrocardiogram( ECG).

But most often the patient tolerates the symptoms of extrasystole rather painfully. Each extrasystole feels like a heartbeat, after which comes the sensation of "failure", "fading", "turning over" and even "stopping" the heart. Immediately after the push, the pulse wave drops out, an attempt to probe the pulse will be unsuccessful.

Some patients note that after a stroke there is still a feeling of compression and tingling behind the sternum and / or a slight dull aching pain.

Indirect symptoms of extrasystole - dizziness, nausea, a sense of fear, fear of death, increased sweating, darkening of consciousness, panic attacks, usually occur after another extrasystole.

The severity of the symptoms of extrasystole primarily depends on the contractility of the heart muscle, the frequency of the extrasystoles, their type, the cause of the onset, as well as the individual threshold of irritability of the sick person.

Among doctors, there is an opinion that in persons with functional causes of extrasystole the signs of the disease appear brighter, and vice versa, if the cause of the disease is of organic origin, then the symptoms of the extrasystole are mild or not noticeable at all.

Treatment of extrasystole

Before starting treatment of extrasystole, it is very important to determine its cause. This will help the doctor, he also appoint an individual treatment regimen( names of drugs, their dosing, the timing of therapy).

All functional causes of extrasystole are reversible, therefore treatment of extrasystole of this type begins with the elimination of the factor that caused it. Such patients do not need to use antiarrhythmic drugs, it is only necessary to use sedatives.

Treatment of extrasystole of organic origin is carried out in a complex manner. First, it is the therapy of the underlying disease( angina pectoris, myocarditis, hypertension, etc.), and, secondly, the use of special antiarrhythmic drugs. But if against the background of therapy of the underlying disease there is a decrease in the number of extrasystoles, in most cases there is no need to use antiarrhythmic drugs. In addition, these drugs do not take patients with single extrasystoles( up to 30 per hour).

In connection with a large number of contraindications and side effects, antiarrhythmic drugs are prescribed only by a doctor!

Treatment of extrasystole with antiarrhythmics requires constant monitoring of the level of potassium in the blood. In the case of a reduced potassium concentration, these drugs will be ineffective. Therefore, in conditions of hypokalemia an additional intake of potassium-containing drugs is necessary.

Treatment of extrasystole in its severe forms( with paired, group and early ventricular extrasystoles) is possible by implantation of a defibrillator-cardioverter.

Prevention of the disease

To reduce the likelihood of the disease, it is necessary to abandon bad habits( alcohol, smoking), eat "healthy" food, exclude coffee and strong tea from the diet, try to keep yourself in an "emotional" tone, avoid stress, normalize sleep, on timeto treat emerging diseases and disorders.

It is more difficult to engage in prevention if the cause of extrasystole is of organic origin. Patients with various pathologies of the cardiovascular system should undergo a regular comprehensive examination in order to prevent more serious life-threatening disorders and to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment.

Remember, in order to avoid the transition from a mild form to a severe form, consult a doctor at the first possible symptoms of an extrasystole.


1. Species and causes of extrasystole

2. Symptoms of the disease

3. Treatment of extrasystole

4. Prevention of disease


This article is only for educational purposes and is not a scientific material or a professional medical advice.

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