Eclampsia in pregnancy - symptoms , treatments


1. Causes

2. symptoms of eclampsia

3. eclampsia

Despite rapid scientific progress in the field of medicine, still today manywomen die from causes directly related to pregnancy and childbirth.One of the first three places among the fatalities took quite rare, but extremely dangerous disease - pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.

maternal mortality rate associated with this complex condition, although over the past few decades and has a clear downward trend, but in developed countries is one case per two thousand, so this pathology is considered by experts as a real obstetric danger that requires doctorsgreat tension, and sufficient knowledge.

Eclampsia pregnancy as convulsions known since the most ancient times.Clinical manifestations of state were first described by Hippocrates, who compared the symptoms of the disease with epilepsy.And until the middle of the 18th century eclampsia pregnant women was seen as a specific form of epilepsy, which manifests itself only in the period

of pregnancy and childbirth.

Actually eclampsia pregnant women has nothing to do with epilepsy.Eclampsia pregnancy - a form of late toxicosis, which occurs in women during the third trimester of pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period, and is characterized by increased blood pressure to such a high level that there is a real threat to life, not only the mother but also the baby.Blood pressure

woman during normal pregnancy is fairly stable hemodynamic and practically does not increase.If starting from the 20th week of pregnancy, the woman is a permanent increase in blood pressure, accompanied by the appearance of protein in the urine (proteinuria) and generalizovanyh swelling, it is a condition called pre-eclampsia.

This syndrome of multiple organ failure occurs in almost 5% of pregnant women.The basis of pre-eclampsia is a significant increase in the permeability of the vessel walls, and hemodynamic abnormalities associated with this variety of disorders.

Statistics show that a complication in the form of eclampsia develops in one of the two hundred pregnant women with preeclampsia and is often fatal if the patient has not received treatment in time eclampsia.The main danger of this state is premature detachment of the placenta from the uterine wall.


disease Usually eclampsia occurs in pregnant women with acute kidney disease - in acute nephritis, kidney disease, and rarely in chronic nephritis.The main cause is a sudden increase in blood pressure, which leads to cerebral vasospasm, cerebrovascular accidents, and cerebral edema.

There are more than thirty theories of the etiology of the disease, but the cause is not found reliable to date.

Eclampsia pregnancy and postpartum eclampsia can occur under the influence of such factors:

  • genetic factors (hereditary eclampsia);
  • during a previous pregnancy;
  • first birth at a very young age or in women after forty years;
  • multiple pregnancy;
  • kidney disease;
  • systemic lupus erythematosus.

symptoms of eclampsia

The most characteristic symptoms of eclampsia - convulsions with loss of consciousness, are not associated with any cerebral pathology.Seizures occur against the background of the symptoms of severe preeclampsia and eclampsia.This can provoke an attack almost any external factor - a sharp knock, bright lights, strong negative emotions, etc.

seizures is usually preceded by symptoms such eclampsia:

  • headache, dizziness.
  • blurred vision;
  • general weakness;
  • pain in the epigastric area or right upper quadrant;
  • nephropathy.

convulsive eclampsia symptoms are often accompanied by foaming from the mouth.After the attack, the woman who runs into epileptic.The attack of this condition in pregnant or postpartum eclampsia attack develops in a certain sequence and includes the following phases:

  • initially appear minor facial muscle contractions, which are rapidly moving to the upper limbs.This phase lasts no more than 30 c;
  • begin tonic convulsions with such force that the whole body is bent, head throws back, breathing is delayed, and the jaws are compressed.The duration of this phase, - 20-25 s.This period, in spite of its short duration, is the most dangerous, because in the background of a brain hemorrhage may occur sudden death;
  • next phase of the attack lasts 1-1.5 min.and it is characterized by erratic clonic seizures muscles of the body and limbs.Breathing becomes hoarse women, irregular, can be quite absent from the mouth foam appears, pupils dilate, the patient loses consciousness, then the breath slowly beginning to recover;
  • after seizure eclamptic woman is in a coma, unconscious, breathing loud, noisy.When he regained consciousness, the patient does not remember anything and complains of general weakness and severe headaches.Coma can go to the next stroke, the number of which may vary.Sometime during the day the woman remains in a coma, and the number of seizures can be more than fifteen (eclamptic status).

forecast condition is entirely dependent on the clinical form, time of occurrence and features of course eclampsia.

eclampsia Seizures can occur both during pregnancy and during labor, and for the first twenty-four hours after delivery.Postpartum eclampsia can lead to serious complications such as acute renal failure and dangerous complications such as HELLP-syndrome, which includes such violations:

  • change in the content of various liver enzymes, indicating that it seriously damaged;
  • destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis);
  • thrombocytopenia (a sharp decrease in the number of platelets), which indicates a considerable disturbance of blood clotting, which is the most dangerous complication during and after childbirth, both for the mother and for the baby.

Postpartum eclampsia develops as a result of deep metabolic, hemodynamic and hypoxic disorders, from which internal organs did not have time to recover.Postpartum eclampsia and needs immediate treatment.

Depending eclampsia symptoms are divided into these types:

  • brain - is characterized by severe hypertension and its complications in the form of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes;
  • kidney - seizures and coma accompanied by anuria;
  • liver - metabolic disorders characterized by deep, heavy endotheliosis, hypoproteinemia.


As the only measure to eliminate the pathological manifestations is the termination of pregnancy, a medical complex treatment of eclampsia is to stabilize the condition of the pregnant woman and the preparation for early delivery.If there is no possibility of early delivery is performed emergency cesarean section with full restoration of blood loss.

After extracting fetal treatment of eclampsia include infusion therapy, the appointment of antihypertensive drugs, glucocorticoids.For effective treatment of eclampsia pregnant ensure complete rest, bed rest, eliminate all visual, auditory, tactile and painful stimuli.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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