Shock - types of shock , symptoms , first aid


1. reasons

2. Forms shock

3. First aid for shock

Shock - this particular condition in which there is a sharp shortage of bloodthe most important human organs: heart, brain, lungs and kidneys.Thus, a situation where insufficient blood volume available to fill the pressure vessel volume available.Somewhat shock - a condition prior to death.

Causes Causes of shock due to a violation of a fixed volume of blood circulating in a certain amount of blood vessels that are able to shrink and expand.Thus, among the most common causes of shock can distinguish a sharp decrease in blood volume (blood loss), the rapid increase in the vascular (blood vessels dilate, usually in response to a sharp pain hit allergen or hypoxia), and the inability of the heart to perform functions assigned to it (cardiac contusion in the fall, myocardial infarction, "kink the" heart in tension pneumothorax).

That is a shock - it is the body's inability to ensure the normal circulation of the blood.

Among the main manifestations of the shock can be identified rapid heart rate above 90 beats per minute, weak thready pulse, low blood pressure (up to a complete lack of it), shortness of breath, in which a person at rest breathes as if performing heavy physical activity.Pale skin (the skin becomes pale blue or pale yellow tint), lack of urine, and severe weakness, in which a person can not move or utter a word, they are also indications of the shock.Development of shock can lead to loss of consciousness and lack of reaction to the pain.

Forms shock

Anaphylactic shock - shock form, which is characterized by abrupt vasodilatation.The cause of anaphylactic shock can be a definite reaction to getting into the human allergen.This may be a bee sting or administration of the drug to which human allergy.

development of anaphylactic shock occurs upon contact with the allergen in the human body no matter in what quantities he was in the body.For example, it does not matter how much a person bitten by bees, as anaphylactic shock occur anyway.However, it is important to bite, since the defeat of the neck, tongue, or face area, anaphylactic shock occurs much faster than the bite in the leg.

Traumatic shock - a shock form, which is characterized by an extremely difficult condition of the body, bleeding or pain triggered by irritation.

Among the most common causes of traumatic shock can be identified blanching of the skin, highlighting the sticky sweat, apathy, confusion, and rapid pulse.Among other reasons for the development of traumatic shock can distinguish thirst, dry mouth, weakness, restlessness, unconsciousness or confusion.These signs traumatic shock to some extent similar to the symptoms of an internal or external bleeding.

Hemorrhagic shock - shock form, in which there is an urgent state of the organism that develops as a result of acute blood loss.

degree of blood loss has a direct impact on the manifestation of hemorrhagic shock.In other words, the power of manifestation of hemorrhagic shock depends on the amount by which the reduced blood volume (CSC) in a relatively short period of time.Loss of blood in a volume of 0.5 liters, which occurs during the week, will not trigger the development of hemorrhagic shock.In this case, the clinic develops anemia.

Hemorrhagic shock occurs as a result of blood loss in total amount of 500 ml or more, accounting for 10-15% of the circulating blood volume.Loss of 3.5 liters of blood (70% BCC) is considered lethal.

Cardiogenic shock - a form of shock, which is characterized by complex pathological conditions in the body triggered by a decrease in contractile function of the heart.

Among the major signs of cardiogenic shock can be identified faults of the heart, which are a consequence of an abnormal heart rhythm.Also in cardiogenic shock marked disruption of the heart and chest pain.For myocardial infarction is characterized by a strong sense of fear with pulmonary embolism, shortness of breath and severe pain.

Among other signs of cardiogenic shock can be identified vascular and autonomic reactions that develop as a result of lowering blood pressure.Cold sweat, pallor, alternating bluish fingernails and lips, as well as severe weakness are also symptoms of cardiogenic shock.Often, notes the emergence of a strong sense of fear.Due to the swelling of the veins, which occurs after the heart stops pumping blood, there is swelling of the jugular veins of the neck.When thromboembolism cyanosis occurs quickly, and celebrated marble head, neck and chest.

In cardiogenic shock after the cessation of respiration and heart activity may occur loss of consciousness.

First aid for shock

timeliness of medical care in severe injury and injury may prevent the development of shock.The effectiveness of first aid for shock depends on how quickly it rendered.First aid for shock is to eliminate the main causes of this condition (stop bleeding, reduction or pain relief, improvement in breathing and heart activity, the total cooling).

Thus, in the first place in the first aid treatment of shock should address the causes of this condition.It is necessary to free the victim from the wreckage, stop bleeding, to extinguish burning clothes, to neutralize the affected part of the body to eliminate the allergen or provide temporary immobilization.

If the person is conscious, it is recommended to offer him an anesthetic and, if possible, drink hot tea.

During first aid for shock, loosen constraining clothes on the chest, neck or waist.

victim must be put in such a position that the head was turned to one side.This position prevents the tongue and choking vomit.

If the shock came in the cold, the victim should be warm, as if in a hot - to protect from overheating.

also in the process of first aid for shock should release the victim's mouth and nose if necessary from foreign objects, and then to hold a closed heart massage and artificial respiration.

The patient should not drink, smoke, use heating pads and hot water bottles, and be alone.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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