Plague - types , symptoms , epidemic , treatment


1. Etiology and pathogenesis

2. clinical picture

3. Bubonic form of plague

4. Treatment plague

5. Preventive measures

plague - this is one of the most serious infectious natural focal disease, which is characterized by severe fever, intoxication, lesions of the skin, lymph nodes and lungs.The most common is considered to be the bubonic plague.Epidemics of the disease in the world today are very rare, but currently plague infected more than two million people annually.

Etiology and pathogenesis

The pathogen - Yersinia pestis (Yersinia pestis).This bacterium was discovered by Japanese researcher S. Kitazato and French scientist A. Yersenom in the late nineteenth century.Today, plague is very rare.The human body is the causative agent of plague falls through fleas carried by rodents (mice and rats).In addition, another known route of transmission - airborne, which contributes to the rapid development and spread of the plague.

Yersinia pestis is very resistant to low

temperatures, and is well preserved in the sputum.From person to person, plague is easily transmitted through airborne droplets, alimentary and by contact.As for the flea bite, the skin on the affected area appears small papule, which is filled with hemorrhagic content.Further, the infectious process immediately spreads to the lymph vessels.Also, bacteria can penetrate into the respiratory system, and (pneumonic plague).This disease is very dangerous because it is characterized by very rapid current.If the treatment of the plague has begun too late, the disease affects all organs and systems, and in most cases ends in death.

clinical picture

first symptoms of plague occur in about two to five days after infection.The patient begins to complain of a severe headache, vomiting, myalgia (muscle pain), chills and pain in the sacral region.In the initial stage of the patient's tongue may be coated with thick white coating.In addition, the tongue becomes dry and increases in size.Also, the symptoms of plague include: arrhythmia, tachycardia and low blood pressure.

the disease often affects the skin of the person.In this case, the symptoms of the plague is reddish spots on the skin, which will eventually turn into vesicles, then pustules, and then grow into a necrotic ulcer.The severity of symptoms of the plague is a swollen lymph nodes (especially when the bubonic plague), which are the main cause of pain.

above signs are inherent primary form of the disease.As for the secondary form of the plague, it is characterized by a sudden fever, shortness of breath, pain in the chest, cough with phlegm, gastrointestinal bleeding, intravascular coagulation, extensive hemorrhage and coma.These manifestations are the most dangerous symptoms of the plague.

bubonic form of the plague

At the present time there are several types of this disease, but the most common bubonic plague, characterized by the formation of plague bubo (lymphadenitis).The development bubo patient feels severe pain, which complicates all movement neck, arm or leg.Because of this, the bubonic plague forcing people forced to take positions (reserved in the side arm, unusual tilt legs and so on.).Buboes usually located in the groin area, at least - in the neck or armpits.

skin over bubo in the initial stage virtually unchanged, but eventually begins to acquire a bluish tint.At the same time increase and the remaining groups of lymph nodes - secondary buboes.If bubonic plague ignore antibacterial treatment, the inflammation of the lymph nodes begin to be opened.Fistula Healing is very slow.

Regarding the chills and fever, these symptoms are also characteristic of bubonic plague.There are cases when they occur a few days before the bubo.Most patients experience abdominal pain, which occur in conjunction with nausea, vomiting, anorexia and diarrhea, sometimes accompanied by blood.

Treatment plague

Thanks to modern medicine, massive plague epidemics have now become a rarity.At the present time, the death rate of patients is 5-10%.But the treatment of the plague is only effective if the disease has been diagnosed in the earliest stages.

Once a person appeared the first symptoms of the plague, he was immediately to be hospitalized in the infectious department.The patient is prescribed a complex treatment, which includes the pathogenetic, and symptomatic drugs etiotropic.Plague can be avoided only if both the patient and the medical staff will approach to the disease with the utmost seriousness and responsibility.

In the treatment of the plague are considered the most effective means of antibiotics streptomycin series.The main representatives of this group are: pasomitsin, dihydrostreptomycin and streptomycin.Set the dosage of these drugs is only entitled to a medical specialist.The course of antibiotic treatment is seven to ten days.

detoxification therapy in the treatment of the plague is also a very important point.It includes a polyionic solution, ascorbic acid solution, 5% glucose, gemodez, etc. reopoligljukin.

order to reduce the risk of side effects due to the reception of antibiotics, special biologically active additives (BAA) is used in the treatment of the plague.

After the disappearance of all signs of the disease have recovered people are in infectious diseases at the dispensary within three months.

Preventive measures

plague prevention consists of preventive and anti-epidemic measures.In order to avoid the plague, the main point in the prevention of this disease is considered to be the most rapid isolation of the patient or a person suspected of having this disease from people around them.

Doctors and other health professionals at the point of care to patients are required to wear anti-plague suits.After the completion of the staff department of infectious undergo complete sanitation.

vaccination is required for all who are in the outbreak of the plague.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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