2. symptoms of traumatic brain injury
3. First aid for traumatic brain injury
4. consequences of traumatic brain injury
Every hundredth of death on the planet is due to traumatic brain injury.This damage, which affects skull, nerves and blood vessels of the brain and meninges.This is one of the most common injuries (it accounts for 50% of all injuries), and one of the most dangerous.The consequences of traumatic brain injury can be a violation of brain function or cerebral circulation, swelling and swelling, displacement and compression of the brain, and other serious conditions, including death.
In terms of severity, injuries are divided into light, medium and heavy on the Glasgow coma scale.The scale consists of three tests: the reaction of opening the eye (1-4 points), the response to it (1-5 points) and locomotor activity (1-6 points).If the patient is gaining from 3 to 8 points, his condition is severe coma, 9-12
Injuries are also isolated (damage only the skull and / or brain), combining (with damage to other organs) and combined (combination of different traumatic factors).
By the nature of damage shared open and closed head injuries.In an open head injury damaged skin, the fascia or bone can be affected, and deep-seated tissue.If the damage has affected the dura mater, the wound is called permeation.If the skin is damaged, but will not affect the fascia, this suggests a closed head injury.Open head injuries are less common than closed.
In terms of clinical manifestations, closed head injury may take the following forms:
- brain concussion.The criterion of gravity are the duration and depth of the loss of consciousness and memory.About concussion symptoms are traumatic brain injury as nausea, vomiting, pallor, cardiac abnormalities, but they pass with time.
- brain contusion.The damage affects the brain tissue and is almost always accompanied by necrosis of the nerve tissue.Bruising can be mild, moderate and severe degrees of severity.
- Compression of the brain.Progressive process resulting from intracranial hematomas, the impact of foreign bodies, air, fireplace injury.Status of the victim threatens life.
- Diffuse axonal injury.The tension of the axons and the gap at which the microscopic hemorrhages in the corpus callosum, a semi-oval center, the upper sections of the brain stem.The main symptom of this condition - long coma with the transition into a vegetative state.
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage.Hemorrhage into the cavity between the arachnoid and the pia mater.Externally, the trauma indicate a sharp headache, nausea, vomiting, loss of consciousness, psychomotor agitation.
The most common injury occurs when an accident, a fall or a blow to the head.In order to provide adequate assistance it is important to immediately recognize the main symptoms of traumatic brain injury: drowsiness, weakness, headache, fainting, dizziness, ringing in the ears, nausea, vomiting, amnesia disorientation in time and space.
The external manifestations include convulsions, damage to the scalp, visible broken bones, abrasions and swelling of the head, release the blood and cerebrospinal fluid from the nose, tense neck, head throws back, when viewed in the direction twitch eyeballs, pupils may be uneven expansion, the pulse slowed, increased body temperature, breathing noisy and intermittent, around the eyeballs may form bruises.If an open head injury is always clearly expressed, the consequences can be closed and not visible.
In the clinical setting, you can identify a wider range of damage.The main symptoms of a traumatic brain injury can be divided into disorders of consciousness and mental disorders.From the standpoint of consciousness disorders, the patient may be in clear consciousness, moderate or deep state of stunning, pathological sleepiness, moderate, or deep coma terminal.Among mental disorders can be identified such characteristic symptoms of traumatic brain injury as a psychotic state, intellectual-mental, affective and volitional disorders, and paroxysmal syndrome.If consciousness is reduced depending on how long was the period of loss of consciousness, the neuro-psychiatric disorders regress.
If you suspect a head injury, in no case do not try to force the victim to sit down or stand up, do not leave it unattended and medical care.While waiting for the doctor, you can have a first-aid measures with traumatic brain injury.If the person is conscious, it is important to put him on his back, controlling breathing and heart rate.If the victim is unconscious, the best first aid for traumatic brain injury will put him on his side so that he choked on vomit or sticking of language.On the wound must be bandaged, but if you are dealing with an open head injury, the wound edges need to impose a bandage, and after that bandage.
Only a year after the treatment of traumatic brain injury can be adequately judged on its consequences, because during this period can occur, both positive and negative changes.The consequences of traumatic brain injury are often dependent on the age of the victim, for example, people over the age of 60 years are much more likely to die from severe injuries than younger people.For the classification of the consequences of traumatic brain injury created by Glasgow Outcome Scale, which provides five options for the outcome:
- Recovery.Effects of open or closed craniocerebral trauma are virtually absent.The victim returned to their previous level of employment.
- Moderate disability.The victim is experiencing neurological and mental disorders that prevent him from returning to professional activity, but allow yourself to serve themselves.
- Rough disability.The patient needs help carers.
- vegetative state.Lack of response to external stimuli, he is in a coma with no possibility to execute commands or make sounds.
- Death.The patient has no spontaneous breathing, heart rate and electrical activity of the brain.
Treatment Treatment of traumatic brain injury depends on the severity and nature of the damage.In the acute phase, pose a threat to the victim lives, delivering a package of emergency measures, which should be completed within two hours of receipt of the victim.Treatment of traumatic brain injury in the acute period includes providing patency of the upper airway, hemodynamic stabilization, and, if necessary, anti shock therapy, mechanical ventilation, as well as basic therapy to support the pressure of the water balance, body temperature and other vital signs.Additionally conducted antibacterial therapy and symptomatic medical and surgical therapy.When the patient recovers consciousness, the treatment of traumatic brain injury include catalytic treatment.
main task of physicians - to maintain normal intracranial pressure, the protection of the cerebral cortex of hypoxia and prevent brain damage tissue.And in the absence of bleeding, treatment of traumatic brain injury are usually conservative.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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