Cytomegalovirus - causes, symptoms, tests, treatment


1. clinical picture

2. Symptoms of cytomegalovirus

3. disease forms

4. treatment of cytomegalovirus

Cytomegalovirus - genus of viruses of the familythe Herpesviridae, which causes cytomegaly, more known as herpes.This is one of the most common viral infections in the world, with many carriers of the virus may be unaware that they are infected because the symptoms of cytomegalovirus holders are practically no strong immunity.The presence of the disease may show only tests for cytomegalovirus.The disease was first discovered and described in 1956.Today, according to statistics antibodies to CMV are found in 10-15% of adolescents and 40% of adults.CMV treatment requires complex treatment, which includes anti-viral drugs and funds to support the immune system.

This article will talk about the basic signs and forms of the disease, particularly those infected with cytomegalovirus children, as well as the existing methods of diagnosis and treatment of cytomegalovirus.

clinical picture

Cytomegalovirus spread across the globe, although the virus has not so many ways, but the virus itself is not as contagious - for transmission requires long and repeated contacts.The virus is betrayed by airborne droplets and through saliva by kissing.Infected with herpes can be sexually transmitted by contact with the mucous membrane of the vagina, or sperm.The virus can be transmitted through blood transfusions, childbirth, during the child's stay in the womb.In addition, infection with cytomegalovirus occurs when children breastfed by mothers milk.

infected by one point, a person remains a carrier of infection for life.Most of his life cytomegalovirus symptoms do not manifest themselves, but with the weakening of cell-mediated immunity reactivated virus.

cells infected with cytomegalovirus, increasing in size by 2-4 times.They often have intranuclear inclusions size 8-10 mm, apparently infected cell looks like owl eyes.When analyzing cytomegalovirus these giant cells can be detected in the salivary glands, lungs, liver, kidneys, intestine, pancreas, adrenal gland or CNS.

Symptoms of cytomegalovirus

Once in the body for the first time, cytomegalovirus runs an incubation period of 20-60 days, the acute phase may last from 2 to 6 weeks.During this period, the main symptoms are manifested cytomegalovirus - fever, general weakness, intoxication, chills, headache, aching muscles, cough.After some time, the immune system prepares the immune attack.If this does not happen, the acute phase passes in a relaxed and symptoms are replaced by visceral and vascular-vegetative disorders.At this stage, cytomegalovirus can be expressed in the form of acute respiratory viral infection, a generalized infection or lesion of urogenital and urinary system.

in the form of SARS appear cytomegalovirus symptoms such as fatigue, malaise, fatigue, fever, headache, runny nose, inflammation of the salivary glands, pale patches on the tongue and gums, inflammation of the tonsils.Much more serious turn takes generalized form when the virus affects the liver tissue, adrenal glands, kidneys, spleen and pancreas.This in turn can cause bronchitis, pneumonia.Externally cytomegalovirus symptoms of this boil down to an increase in the salivary glands, skin rashes, and treatment with antibiotics does not bring the desired effect.Diagnostic tests may show a decrease in platelet count in the peripheral blood, intestinal wall damage, vascular eyeball, brain and nervous system.Only tests for CMV showed the presence of a virus or specific antibodies.

In the third form of CMV symptoms are expressed in the form of a non-specific inflammation, which responds poorly to treatment with antibiotics.

disease forms

Cytomegalovirus infection can be congenital or acquired.In turn, in newborns and adults with normal and immunocompromised infection develop differently.

most dangerous cytomegalovirus in children fetal stage of development.Congenital CMV infection affects the fetus during primary infection or reactivation of latent infection in the mother.If the mother infection occurs for the first time in the absence of antibodies, the virus is transmitted to the fetus easier than if the mother had been ill with herpes before pregnancy, and may cause a generalized infection.The virus penetrates the placental damage, fetal membranes and fetal external covers.When a latent infection of fetal loss is not always, and may not appear.

If the mother suffers a primary cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy, the infant can detect petechiae, gepatospelenomegaliyu, jaundice, rarely - microcephaly, intrauterine development or prematurity.The most rare manifestation - inguinal hernias and chorioretinitis.Cytomegalovirus in children infected in utero and avoid generalized infection, in subsequent years may occur in the delay of psychomotor development.hearing loss, visual impairment, abnormal development of the teeth, but this only happens in 5-25% of cases.

Acquired cytomegalovirus infection with normal immunity may occur in the form of a mononucleosis syndrome.Children cytomegalovirus acquired in the form of proceeds in the form of skin rashes.Infection often occurs with the passage of the birth canal or through breastfeeding.In healthy children cytomegalovirus infection may be asymptomatic.With this treatment does not require cytomegalovirus.In preterm and LBW infants with weakened immune cytomegalovirus can cause prolonged pneumonia with additional bacterial infection.Possible slowing of physical development, rash, swollen lymph nodes, or hepatitis.

In adults with weak immune systems weakened by acquired immune deficiency syndrome, congenital immunodeficiency or those who underwent transplantation of internal organs, the severity of the disease depends on the degree of immunosuppression.When AIDS Cytomegalovirus is one of the common causes of death.Organ transplantation, such as bone marrow, the virus can cause pneumonia.With weakened immunity it causes fever, malaise, loss of appetite, fatigue, night sweats, arthralgia, and myalgia.

Treatment of cytomegalovirus

Treatment of Cytomegalovirus is general in nature.In order to differentiate a diagnosis, the doctor conducting tests for cytomegalovirus.This can be done by examining the body fluids, by polymerase chain reaction cell culture seeding.The most significant result gives immunosorbent assay for cytomegalovirus.

most commonly used complex treatment of cytomegalovirus, aimed at strengthening the immune system, and also includes antiviral, tonic therapy and antibiotics.There is no method which would allow to eradicate herpes virus.But these methods of treatment of cytomegalovirus infection can be derived virus in an inactive form, in which the activity of the pathogen is completely controlled by the immune system.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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