Chronic renal failure - stage treatment


1. main causes of CKD (chronic kidney disease)

2. Classification of CRF

3. clinical picture of chronic renal failure

4. Treatment of chronicrenal failure

chronic renal failure - is one of the most serious pathological conditions, which is a complication of chronic progressive renal disease due to the death of a huge number of nephrons.In this disease the kidneys can not do their job properly, and maintain homeostasis at the normal level.

main causes of CKD (chronic kidney disease)

of CRF lead various groups of diseases of the urinary tract and kidneys.These diseases include:

  • glomerulosclerosis and chronic glomerulonephritis, which are characterized by a primary lesion of the glomerular apparatus.
  • Systemic scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis (ie, systemic disease of the connective tissue), which are accompanied by renal disease.
  • Kidney Illnesses resulting from the exchange of pathology (diabetes, gout, thyroid disease, and the like).
  • Chronic interstitial nephritis.
  • obstruction of the urinary tract in various diseases (urolithiasis, tumors, bladder cancer, cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia, and so on.).
  • Primary and secondary lesions of tubules.
  • Congenital anomalies of ureters and kidneys (ureters neuromuscular dysplasia, doubling the kidney, polycystic kidney disease, the kidneys and the absence of others.).
  • hypertension.

Classification of CRF

At the present time there are four stages of chronic renal failure:

  • hidden (latent) stage renal failure are no specific symptoms is not.If the symptoms is present, it is hardly noticeable.Identify the stage of the disease is possible only with a complete clinical and laboratory examination of the patient.A careful study of urine can detect the periodic proteinuria.
  • Compensated stage of chronic renal failure is characterized by increased urine output - about 2.5 liters per day.
  • Intermittent stage chronic renal failure.The main feature of the current stage of the disease is the frequency of deterioration and improvement of the patient.Poor health is caused, as a rule, suppurative processes, surgical interventions, attacks of acute pyelonephritis, common viral illnesses of the upper respiratory tract.
  • In the absence of adequate treatment for intermittent stage chronic renal failure goes into terminal phase, which is the main symptom of uremia (poisoning of the body components of the urine).To improve the patient's condition is used dialysis.

clinical picture of chronic renal failure

The course of the disease may be different, but most often occurs slowly progressive chronic renal failure (between the first symptoms of the disease and end-stage pass for many years).Patients are observed constant deterioration and remission.

In chronic renal failure are the most common complaints: unmotivated weakness, malaise, increased bleeding, skin discoloration, dyspepsia, dizziness, headaches, pasty legs, swelling of the face, and so on.

latent (hidden) stage of CKD is defined by symptoms of the underlying disease.Over time, the weakness of the joins, unmotivated fatigue and reduced work capacity.In addition, the initial stage of chronic renal failure is accompanied by pale skin.With regard to the central nervous system, in patients with marked lethargy and sluggishness, frequent mood swings, depression, suicidal thinking and saying so on.

As the disease progresses (because of the high level of nitrogenous substances in the blood) having muscle twitching, and, painful cramps in the calf muscles.

If we talk about the stage of uremia, it is accompanied by mental disorders, severe polyneuropathies with pain or dystrophic syndromes.Also, there may be cerebral strokes, which provoked malignant hypertension.

respiratory system in patients with chronic renal failure suffer no less than the others.Irritation of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract leads to the development of tracheitis, bronchitis and laryngitis.

Pathologies of the cardiovascular system in the initial stages of the disease are manifested by headaches, dizziness, discomfort in the heart and heart failure symptoms (cough, shortness of breath, cardiac asthma).

the part of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with chronic renal failure are also observed some changes: dysgeusia, nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite, disturbance of stool, gastrointestinal bleeding (sometimes).

Treatment of chronic renal insufficiency

Treatment of chronic renal failure in the life of the patient - this is a very important point, to which the correct approach makes it possible to extend the life of a person suffering from this disease.As chronic renal failure is not an independent disease, a complication of a variety of pathological processes, the approach to treatment of this disease should be careful and deliberate.

The first thing to do - is to identify the disease, which has become the main provocateur of CRF.People with this disease immediately put to the dispensary registration.

At the initial stage of the disease the patient should completely stop smoking, eliminate hard physical work, night shifts, as well as hypothermia.The next thing you must pay attention at the time of the treatment of chronic renal failure, is food.Diet therapy - the main component of conservative treatment of chronic renal failure.Meals should be as physiological.It is necessary as soon as possible to balance the protein content in the daily diet.Limiting protein will help a little to unload the kidneys.

When thermal chronic renal failure are appointed specially designed diet with a minimum protein content.As products containing essential amino acids and proteins, it is recommended to use the eggs.Meat and fish should be completely excluded from the diet.

Anticoagulants help to normalize diuresis, reduce blood pressure, as well as prevent the formation of fibrin in the glomeruli.Antiplatelet agents significantly improves renal hemodynamics.These drugs need to be very careful in the treatment of chronic renal failure in the thermal stage, as they may provoke severe haemorrhagic complications.

for correction of metabolic acidosis apply trisamin and sodium bicarbonate (intravenously or orally).Perfect effect does the inclusion in the daily diet of carrots, beets, oranges and apples.

main goal of treatment of chronic renal failure - a reduction in the growth of azotemia.Initially, the development of the disease using drugs of plant origin (lespenefril, hofitol and so on.).With increasing azotemia resorted to means of enhancing liver detoxifying action (hormones and concentrated solutions of glucose).


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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