1. Nature of the disease
2. Symptoms of cholera
3. degrees of disease severity
4. cholera diagnosis
5. Cholera Treatment
6. cholera prevention
cholera - an acute infectious disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, characterized by the fecal-oral mechanism of transmission and proceeding with the development of demineralization and dehydration varying degrees of severity.
In this article, we will focus on ways of transmission and the causative agent of cholera, the symptoms of disease, as well as modern methods of diagnostics of cholera.The article also describes the activities for prevention of cholera and how to treat the disease.
disease is one of quarantine infections due to the ability of pandemic spread.In developed countries, it is extremely rare, but the causative agent of cholera is quite common in Africa, South and South-East Asia, South America.
cholera - Vibrio cholerae Vibrio cholerae, resistant to low temperatures and survive in o
cholera Source - it is always a sick person or a bacilli carrier (a man who was in an unfavorable cholera region).Infection occurs by the fecal-oral route.In the most disadvantaged regions of epidemics directly linked to the consumption of contaminated water bacteria.At home cholera often falls directly into the water and food with infected vomit and feces that cholera does not have a specific color and smell, do not cause disgust in others, and this creates the illusion of security.Therefore, although cases of transmission of the disease from person to person are extremely rare, anyone who has been in contact with the patient, in order to cholera prevention must adhere to strict rules of personal hygiene.
There are food, water, contact-household and mixed cholera epidemic.Susceptibility to human cholera pathogen is very high, but the current cholera diagnostic methods allow to identify the disease quickly and prevent the epidemic.
The incubation period of the disease is most often 2-3 days, but in general it can last from several hours to 5-6 days.It should be noted that in some cases the patient does not show any symptoms of cholera, but up to 90% of patients still feel uncomfortable varying severity.
main symptom of cholera - loose stools, usually begins suddenly.Then joins to diarrhea and vomiting.At the initial stage of the disease abdominal pain and cramps may be absent, but then they join the symptoms of the disease.Rapid fluid loss attributed cholera symptoms such as acute thirst, dizziness and fatigue.
When fluid loss reaches a critical value, cholera symptoms in the form of gastrointestinal lesions fade into the background, giving way to a disruption of the body's major systems.The severity of these disorders is determined by the degree of dehydration:
- first degree - implicit dehydration;
- second degree - the body weight decreased by 4-5%, decreases in hemoglobin level and number of erythrocytes, accelerated ESR.Patients feel dizziness, thirst, and dry mouth.There is a blue lips and fingers, possible convulsions chewing and calf muscles, there is hoarseness;
- third degree - body mass loss reaches 8-9%.To exacerbate the above symptoms joins decrease in body temperature, drop in blood pressure, possible collapse.The blood drops chlorine and potassium concentration, blood thickens very much;
- the fourth power - weight loss exceeds 10%.The patient falls into a state of prostration, shock develops.Facial features are sharpened, the skin becomes cold and cyanotic, increases the frequency and duration of tonic convulsions.A sharp drop in blood pressure and heart sounds muffled.Treatment of cholera in the fourth degree of dehydration is ineffective.
Severe cholera form accounts for one out of twenty cases.Evolve can rapidly and without proper treatment and care leads to death within hours.Therefore, when the first symptoms of cholera should immediately consult your doctor.
cholera diagnosis is made on the basis of epidemiological, medical history, laboratory and clinical research.
is mandatory laboratory examination of patients.Modern cholera diagnosis combines the so-called "classical study", stretched to 36 hours, and accelerated methods to isolate cholera embryo within 2-5 hours after the start of the study.
cholera main method of diagnosis - bacteriological.This method aims to abjection of culture of vomit and feces.In case of death of the patient of cholera diagnosis is carried out by the study of the small intestine segments.
Hospitalization is required for all patients.The leading role in the treatment of cholera given to the restoration of water-salt balance of the body and combat dehydration.Applied solutions containing sodium and potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and glucose.The solutions were administered with a dropper.In severe dehydration permissible bolus of fluid that is carried out to normalize the heartbeat.During the treatment of cholera patients in the diet include foods rich in potassium salts (potatoes, tomatoes, apricots).
Treatment with antibiotics is performed only in patients with severe third and fourth degree of dehydration.In such cases, treatment of cholera by using tetracycline or chloramphenicol.
cholera treatment ends with an extract of the patient only after a negative analyzes bacteriology.Much of the success of treatment of cholera depends on how much time the patient sought medical help.
After a man has transferred this dangerous disease, a life-long immunity to the disease he has not produced.Therefore, the importance of prevention of cholera is hard to overestimate.
Measures for the prevention of cholera focused on surveillance, preventing the spread of infection in human beings into the territory of the country, visited the cholera disadvantaged regions, improving sanitation and communal human settlements.
specific prevention of cholera vaccination is considered.The effectiveness of it is controversial.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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