1. degrees and symptoms of brain injury
2. treatment of brain injury
brain contusion - a violation of the integrity of the medulla at a limited area.
According to statistics on the proportion of brain injury accounts for about 25% of all head injuries.
The most common injury is localized at the site of exposure to traumatic force.But sometimes it is observed on the opposite side, the so-called injury from protivoudara.In this part of the brain tissue is destroyed, some blood vessels, the histological cell communication.As a result, developing traumatic edema.Plot pathological damage depends on the severity of the injury.
When injuries of this type of focal tissue damage combined with traumatic hemorrhages in the white matter and the cortex of the brain.Gradually, there is an expansion chamber of injury as a result of hemorrhage and the swelling of the brain.
Many suffered severe brain injury leads to the formation of intracranial hematoma.In some cases, possible fracture of
Signs of injury depends on its severity.There are bruises mild, moderate, severe.
Mild.This degree is found in 10-15% of people with a brain injury.It is characterized by loss of consciousness after the injury for 2-10 minutes.The characteristic symptoms of a brain injury are dizziness, nausea, headache.Typically, the patient suffers from mild amnesia (loss of memory).Often the victim is vomiting, a slight tachycardia (increased heart rate) or bradycardia (decreased heart rate), hypertension.In some cases, the victims is subarachnoid hemorrhage (between the brain and the thin shell) fracture of the cranial vault.
Bruising of the brain in a child is most often in mild.
average degree.This degree of injury occurs in 7-10% of the victims.It is characterized by a complete loss of consciousness after the injury to 10-120 minutes, severe amnesia.Symptoms of brain injury secondary degree are severe headache, repeated vomiting.The victim often suffers from mental disorders, tachycardia or bradycardia, increase in blood pressure, increasing the temperature to subfebrile values.Depending on the localization of brain injuries, there are specific symptoms - and pupillary oculomotor disturbances, speech disorders, loss of sensation, paresis (loss of muscle strength) limbs.Generally, such symptoms are smoothed for 4-5 weeks, but in some cases are kept for a longer time.Quite often, the extent of the brain injury is accompanied by subarachnoid hemorrhage and fractured the base or of the cranial vault.
Severe.This degree of injury occurs in 7% of the victims.It is characterized by loss of consciousness for a period of a few hours to several weeks.Manifestations of brain injury are motor agitation, hypertension, sometimes hypotension (low blood pressure), tachycardia or bradycardia.Often the victim manifested frequency disturbances, respiratory rate at which disrupted airway.In addition, the patient suffers from hyperthermia (a temporary increase in body temperature).The victim exhibits symptoms of neurological disorders - floating movement of the eyeball, swallowing disorders, ptosis, increase or decrease of tendon reflexes and others.In some cases, there are paresis of the extremities, possible paralysis (loss of muscle motor function), seizures.Almost always severe brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage is accompanied by a set of fractures, skull base.
When brain injury in a child is often absent meningeal symptoms (meningeal irritation symptoms) - rigidity (strain) neck, muscle tension flexor knee and hip joints.
most accurate method of diagnosis of brain injury - computed tomography.
treatment of brain injury is carried out in stationary conditions.Mild injury victim assumes bed rest for a week, the average - for two weeks.
In mild to moderate injury to the patient is prescribed conservative therapy, the aim of which is the normalization of intracranial pressure, prevention of cerebral edema.
In severe treatment of brain injury begins with the implementation of urgent resuscitation.To normalize the breathing of the victim carried out measures to establish a free upper airway.Patients underwent removal of vomit, blood, mucus, use intubation.In severe cases, administered artificial respiration.In some situations, the blood is conducted from the suction subarachnoid space.
Surgical treatment of brain injury are used for crushing brain tissue.During the operation reveal the skull, and eliminate the damage, stop the bleeding.After that, for the recovery of brain function patients prescribed conservative treatment.
consequences of injury mild virtually no brain.But an important condition for this is to comply with bed rest injured.
At moderate the effects of brain injury is most often favorable.In most cases, the person is completely restored in the social and labor spheres.
quite difficult are the consequences of a brain injury severe.The lethal outcome is observed in 35-50% of the victims.Even if the patient survives, it remains disabled until the end of life.The patient will suffer from significant motor, speech, mental disorders, frequent epileptic seizures.He will have to constantly resort to symptomatic treatment.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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