Drowning - types , symptoms , first aid


1. Types drowning

2. Causes and risk factors for drowning

3. mechanism of drowning and drowning signs

4. How to help drowning

Drowning - a kind of mechanical asphyxia, or death arising as a result of filling the lungs and airways with water or other liquids.

Types drowning

Depending on external factors, condition and response of the organism are several main types of drowning:

  • True (aspiration, "wet") drowning - is characterized by hitting a large amount of fluid in the lungs and airways.It makes about 20% of the total number of cases of drowning.
  • False (asphyxial, "dry") drowning - comes a spasm of the respiratory tract, which occurs as a result of lack of oxygen.In the latter stages of the "dry" drowning airways relaxed and fluid fills the lungs.This kind of drowning is considered the most common and occurs in about 35% of cases.
  • syncope (reflex) drowning - is characterized by a spasm of blood vessels, which leads to heart failure and breathing.On average, this
    type of drowning occurs in 10% of cases.
  • Mixed drowning - combines features of true and false drowning.It occurs in about 20% of cases.

Causes and risk factors of drowning

most frequent cause of drowning is the neglect basic precautions.People are drowning because of swimming in reservoirs and questionable places where entry into the water is prohibited, as well as for swimming during a storm.Enough common causes of drowning are the swim for the buoys and swimming while intoxicated.

significant role also played by the so-called fear factor.The man who swims bad or can not swim, can accidentally fall to great depths and panic.Typically, this is accompanied by chaotic movements and cries, as a result of which the air leaves the lungs, and the man really begins to sink.

Other risk factors include high speed flow, whirlpools, as well as the presence of a human cardiovascular diseases.The causes of drowning may also be fatigue, injuries sustained during a dive, as well as extreme changes in temperature.

mechanism of drowning and drowning signs

believed that the drowning man is always screaming and waving his arms, so to identify these critical situations very easily.In fact, more often there are cases when a drowning man does not look like drowning, and drowning signs invisible even from a close distance.

man actively waving his arms and calling for help, most likely under the influence of panic when these symptoms do not manifest themselves drowning.He is able to help their rescuers, for example, to grasp the rescue equipment.

Unlike the sudden panic in the water, truly a drowning man might look as if it normally rests on the water.He is unable to call for help, as his breath broken.When surfacing him only enough time for a quick breath and then sinking again goes under the water and he did not have time to call for help.

Before you immerse yourself in the water drowning person can hold on to the water surface of 20 to 60 seconds.At the same time the body is upright, his legs still, and hand movements instinctively are intended to push the water.

other signs of drowning are:

  • characteristic arrangement of the head as she laid back and open your mouth at the same time, or completely immersed in water, and the mouth is located directly at the surface;
  • man's eyes are closed or not visible under the hair;
  • ¬ęglass" view;
  • person makes frequent breaths, grasping for breath;
  • victim tries to roll over on your back or swim, but to no avail.

How to help drowning

First aid for drowning - is the removal of the victim from the water.By sinking the best swim up from behind, after which it must turn over on his back so that the person was in the water.Then how can the victim must be transported to the shore soon.

should know that helping drowning, one can often encounter manifestations from sinking instinctive reaction when he can grasp the rescuer and drag him into the water.In such cases, it is important not to panic, try to inhale as much air and dive deep.Sinking lose support and unclench his hands instinctively.

Immediately after transporting the victim to the bank to check the pulse and determine the type of drowning.If true ( "wet") drowning the skin and mucous membranes of the victim has a bluish tint, and the veins in the neck and legs swell.When false drowning the skin have a bluish color, and when the skin has a syncopal pronounced pale.

In the case of wet drowning first step is to remove the liquid from the respiratory tract of the victim.It must be put on a bent knee and a pat on the back.In the absence of the pulse should be as soon as possible to begin rescue breathing and chest compressions.

First aid for drowning dry or syncopal type does not require the removal of water from the lungs and airways.In this case, should immediately proceed to the aforementioned resuscitation.

It is important to remember that aid for drowning in any case should not be limited to these activities.After resuscitation possible complications in the form of repeated heart failure or pulmonary edema, so the victim in any case it is necessary to show the doctor as soon as possible.Even in cases where the sinking was able to pull out of the water very quickly, and he did not lose consciousness, you need to call an ambulance - this will help avoid possible complications.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

make an appointment to see a doctor

Latest Blog Post

Anaphylaxis and Allergy - Causes, Symptoms , Treatment
August 12, 2017

Contents: 1. allergy and anaphylaxis: peculiarities of 2. Symptoms of anaphylaxis 3. Treatment Anaphylaxis is a severe, pote...

Anal fissure - symptoms, treatment , surgery
August 12, 2017

Contents: 1. reasons 2. symptoms of anal fissure 3. Classification 4. Diagnostics 5. treatment of anal fissure 6. trea...

Amnesia - Causes, Symptoms , Treatments
August 12, 2017

Contents: 1. symptoms of amnesia 2. reasons 3. Diagnostics 4. Treatment of amnesia Amnesia - a condition characterized b...