Tularemia - pathogen , diagnosis and prevention


1. causative agent of tularemia

2. Signs of the disease

3. Diagnosis of tularemia

4. Vaccination against the disease

5. Preventing tularemia

tularemia is called acute infection, wearing a natural focal character and affects not only the lymph nodes and skin, and mucous membranes of eyes, throat and lungs.The disease is accompanied by severe poisoning of the whole organism.

causative agent of tularemia

In this case, the role of agent acts tularemia stick or Francisella tularensis, which is characterized by extreme durability and adaptability.At low temperatures the water it can exist for months, and even at zero for about six months.The causative agent of tularemia ceases to exist only under the influence of disinfectants or high temperature conditions.

Carriers are birds, several species of mammals, and especially rodents.A person can not be the transmitter of the pathogen of tularemia.

infection enters the body through the microscopic animal skin or mucous me

mbranes, where ticks attach themselves, are the most common carrier of the disease.A person infected by getting into water or food products that have been infected by direct contact with sick animals, the product of its life or the skin.

human body is different maximum susceptibility to the causative agent of tularemia and can get infected even by respiratory inhalation of infected dust.

Signs of

disease Typically, symptoms of tularemia on the 3rd or 7th day after the infection, but the incubation period may last a month.

to human tularemia characterized by symptoms such as:

  • critical body temperature indicators;
  • development of an organism poisoning process;
  • weakness, headaches and muscle pain;
  • intermittent or persistent fever;
  • rash and a variety of skin rashes;
  • swelling, changes in skin structure of the face and neck;
  • bradycardia and decreased blood pressure;
  • tularemia other symptoms characteristic of its clinical form.

There are several features of the disease, and they are all characterized by different symptoms.So, for example, ulcerative bubonic form is noted the presence of slow-healing ulcers, which mark the place of introduction of the parasite.A glazobubonnaya shape in which wand gets tularemia through conjunctiva, accompanied by its redness, suppuration, occurrence of erosions and ulcers.

also take place such as the occurrence of tularemia options:

  • Angiozno-bubonic, in which bacillus enters the body through the throat in the use of contaminated water.It appears sore throat, swelling of the tonsils, difficulty swallowing, necrotic plaque, ulcers, scars and lymphadenitis;
  • With the introduction of the pathogen into the intestinal lymphatic vessels occur pain in the abdomen, sudden weight loss, vomiting and nausea;
  • pulmonary form is characterized by bronchitis and pneumonia with unpredictable complications;
  • Generalized version - the most difficult, which leads to delirium, hallucinations and general appearance of the poisoning of the body.

Diagnosis of tularemia

detection and accurate determination of the existence of the disease, based on laboratory, clinical and epidemiological data.The most uninformative and misleading considered the epidemiological diagnosis of tularemia, which is based on a survey of the victim about his stay in places of possible infection.

Laboratory diagnosis of tularemia is represented in many ways, in which we study the reaction of the biological material on the reagents.

There are also techniques such as the diagnosis of tularemia:

  • detection of allergic reactions to drugs administered;
  • bacteriological;
  • genetic method PCR.

Vaccination against the disease

Live vaccine against tularemia is an effective preventive measure applied to the public in conjunction with other actions to prevent illness.Routine vaccination against tularemia is produced in areas where infections have been observed and is mandatory for certain categories of the population: c / s staff, laboratory staff, and so on.Vaccination against tularemia has some serious contraindications and is made only after a thorough medical examination.


Prevention Preventive measures include disinfection of possible sources and locations of the pathogen.Prevention Tularemia is highly relevant for hunters and employees of institutions involved in fishing, baiting and collection of rodents.It is not necessary to use raw water from sources of unknown origin.Planned tularemia Prevention includes vaccination of the population, and emergency - the introduction of intravenous antibiotics.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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