28 May

Tuberculosis of bones and joints - Symptoms and Treatment

Contents:

1. Causes of tuberculosis of bones and joints

2. clinical picture of the disease

3. bone tuberculosis treatment

4. disease prevention

tuberculosis of bones and joints - one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that affects the different departments of the musculoskeletal system, but mainly the spine and large joints (hip, knee).

Causes of tuberculosis of bones and joints

Infection tuberculosis of bones is due to the penetration of mycobacteria disease through the blood vessels of the body soft tissue (usually the lungs) in the bone marrow.When bone marrow is its inflammation, and in a short time and a gradual necrosis of bone.

The disease most often affects the portion of the skeletal system in which there is good blood flow (vertebrae, long bones).

can highlight the following factors that contribute to the development of tuberculosis of bones:

  • injuries of the musculoskeletal system
  • overload the musculoskeletal system
  • frequently occurring
    infectious diseases
  • adverse conditions
  • stay malnutrition
  • frequent hypothermia
  • HIV

clinical picture of the disease

manifestation of symptoms of tuberculosis of bones and joints depends on the phase of the disease.There are three phases:

1. First - prespondiliticheskaya (from the word "Spondylitis" - a disease of the spine) or preartriticheskaya (from the word "arthritis" - a disease of the joints).

Prespondiliticheskaya phase is characterized by the beginning of the process of bone destruction of tubercle bacilli.Symptoms of bone tuberculosis at this stage are mild, they can be easily confused with symptoms of other diseases.Typically, patients complain of fatigue, decreased performance, the severity of the spine.In preartriticheskoy phase patients feel localized pain in the joint, it is difficult to move the limb, joint plastic lost, it swells.

2. In most cases the disease is detected in its second phase - spondiliticheskoy (arthritic).At this stage, the disease progresses beyond the boundaries of the bone.

In spondiliticheskoy phase, the following bone tuberculosis symptoms:

  • pain in the spine, which apply to
  • internal organs restricted movement in the spine as a result of the rigidity (inelastic) muscles
  • change in gait and posture human

Further vertebraeraised body temperature, pain in the spine are enhanced, developed muscle atrophy, the patient's condition deteriorates.

For arthritic phase is characterized by:

  • development of tuberculous synovitis
  • decreased muscle tone and joint movement limitation
  • swelling

further destruction of the articular ends of the bones leads to a sharp increase in body temperature, increased pain in the affected joint, atrophy of soft tissues.

3. The third phase - postspondiliticheskaya (postartriticheskaya) is characterized by improving the general condition of the sick person, bone TB symptoms disappear.But at the same time there are all anatomical deformation and displacement: vertebral articular ends of bones, joints themselves.

bone tuberculosis treatment

Conservative treatment of bone tuberculosis treatment includes the following activities:

1. Antibacterial chemotherapy

2. Orthopaedic treatment

To date chemotherapy has won first place in the treatment of tuberculosis of bones, thanks to its use of lethaloutcome of the disease is almost not observed.

Antibacterial chemotherapy accompanied by other methods of treatment and includes the administration of drugs detrimental effect on Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Chemotherapy may be long enough as it is carried out to the complete disappearance of the symptoms of bone tuberculosis.Antibiotic treatment also includes a preventive treatment courses annually.

Orthopaedic treatment is carried out with the purpose of loading and regeneration of the affected segment of the skeleton.When lesions of the joints and the articular ends of bones require immobilization of a limb plaster splint.When lesions of the spine needs bed rest and after wearing a plaster corset.

Methods of treating bone tuberculosis are selected for each patient individually, they should take into account the phase of the disease, the body's response to the disease, age of the patient, as well as the state of his internal organs.

For the treatment of tuberculosis of bones and joints, as well as possible to eliminate the complications of the disease is almost always used prompt surgical intervention.The operation to eliminate the disease complications usually held together with the operation of the main focus of the bone.The volume of surgery depends on the phase of the disease, that is, the degree of bone destruction.If it is small, the majority of patients have a complete cure.

With significant degradation volumetric surgery performed to eliminate defects in the damaged vertebrae articular ends of bones, and in order to limb lengthening, the decompression of the spinal cord.With the right approach to the treatment of tuberculosis of bones even serious damage can be corrected and thus achieve almost complete recovery of man.

very serious anatomical changes, which entail the complete destruction of bones, vertebrae, spinal cord disorders, completely liquidate fails, surgical treatment of tuberculosis of bones and joints in such cases is aimed at reducing the severity of the disability.

disease prevention

To avoid the occurrence of tuberculosis of bones and joints, or at least prevent the transition of the disease in a severe form, it is important to adhere to the following guidelines:

  • moderate exercise
  • healthy diet
  • creation of tuberculosis immunity by vaccination andrevaccination
  • strengthening the general immunity of the body to improve the resistance to various infections
  • antibacterial prophylaxis in people with an increased risk of disease infection
  • timely examination and diagnosis of tuberculosis of bones and joints

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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