Essential thrombocythemia - symptoms, treatment


1. Causes

2. Symptoms thrombocythemia

3. Diagnosis of the disease

4. treatment of thrombocythemia

thrombocythemia - a diseaseassociated with the overproduction of platelets in the bone marrow, increasing their number in the peripheral blood, the patient's tendency to thrombosis, bleeding and megakaryocytic hyperplasia.


distinguish primary thrombocythemia (cause can not be established disease) and secondary, developing as a result of bleeding, infection, rheumatoid arthritis, removal of the spleen, sarkaidoza and some cancers.Primary thrombocythemia is the second name - essential thrombocythemia.

Platelets are produced in the bone marrow of human specific cell - megakaryocytes.When data thrombocythemia pathologically altered cells.Such changes lead to an acceleration of the process of production of platelets megakaryocytes.Develops essential thrombocythemia.

Typically, the disease occurs in people older than 50 years, at least 30-40 years to develop, and is e

xtremely rare in young patients aged 2-14 years.Treatment for thrombocythemia in patients of different age groups has its own characteristics.

Symptoms thrombocythemia

Two of the three patients clinical picture quite erased.Most often, patients complain of symptoms such as thrombocythemia:

- Cerebrovascular ischemia.Manifestations of thrombocythemia symptoms are headaches, reduced mental capacity, dizziness and nausea, a number of neurological symptoms associated with the violation of the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries.In a study of patients fundus retinal artery occlusion is detected.

- hemorrhagic syndrome.It is noted in half of patients with thrombocythemia, and manifests itself in the form of skin hemorrhages and bleeding gums.In some cases, there may be bleeding from the urinary tract and gastrointestinal bleeding.

- Eritromegaliya, declares itself burning throbbing pain in the lower, less frequently in the upper extremities.Pain increases during exercise and becomes less intense during rest or under the influence of cold.Often the pain is accompanied by a darkening of the skin, or erythema, feeling hot.Often this symptom thrombocythemia combined with degenerative changes of the extremities and Raynaud's syndrome.

- Digital microvascular ischemia.This symptom thrombocythemia is severe pain in the fingertips, resulting from thrombosis of small vessels.In some severe cases, patients develop dry necrosis toe, less hands.This pulsation of peripheral arteries of the upper and lower limbs preserved.

- Thrombotic vascular occlusion are also fairly common symptom thrombocythemia, is seen in 30-50% of patients at diagnosis.Formed blood clots in the arteries mostly, less often in the veins.May be affected vessels of the lower limbs, brain, pulmonary and coronary arteries.

- Complications during pregnancy.In pregnant women, faced with the disease in question, the case of multiple infarcts of the placenta, placental insufficiency develops, cases of spontaneous abortion, there is a risk of preterm labor, premature detachment of the placenta and fetal growth retardation.


disease during medical observation patient undergoes a series of studies, previous diagnosis and treatment of thrombocythemia top.They include a complete blood count, coagulation (blood clotting analysis), blood chemistry, sternal puncture, cytogenetic studies.

In general blood test registered excessively high white blood cell count (over 600-10000h10 * 9 / L).In this case the blood cells are changing their color and become large, can take ugly shape.In addition, fragments can be detected blood megakaryocytes.When thrombocythemia changes do not affect the leukocyte formula.ESR is usually increased.

According to studies, 20% of patients the duration of increased bleeding.However, a strict correlation between the results of coagulation and platelet count in patients with thrombocythemia is not established.

results of biochemical analysis of patients blood usually indicate an increased amount of potassium, zinc, acid phosphatase, uric acid, mucopolysaccharides, inorganic phosphate and vitamin B12 in the blood.

in cerebrospinal fluid taken for analysis using the sternal puncture, find gipermegakariotsitoz, accompanied by a quantitative increase in young megakaryocytes, megakaryocytes unusual shapes and multicore megakaryocytes.Furthermore, punctate noted retikulinovyh moderately increased amount of fibers and a large number of platelets debris.

In most patients with thrombocythemia during cytogenetic studies have observed violations and anomalies by cytogenetic positions.

Treatment thrombocythemia

Prognosis generally favorable.In 20% of cases of essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis transformed into.The transformation of the disease in acute leukemia is noted only in 2% of cases, while the risks may increase slightly after cytostatic therapy.

If the increase is a consequence of the established platelet reason, treatment of thrombocythemia to eliminate this cause.Over time, with the successful treatment of platelets in the blood to normal levels.

no consensus when it is necessary to start the treatment of thrombocythemia with unidentified causes of the disease does not exist.If the patient has non-severe symptoms (periodic headaches, light rodonalgia ischemia and fingers), the therapeutic treatment is reduced to a destination aspirin dosage of 81 mg once a day.By the use of potentially hazardous toxic therapies aimed at reducing platelet levels, have resorted to the more severe cases.

Patients older than 60 years who have a history of thrombosis, as well as in patients with increased risk of thrombosis prescribed drugs that reduce platelet levels.Advisability of the appointment of these drugs in patients with unexpressed symptoms and patients younger than 50 years is uncertain and requires further study.

During thrombocythemia treatment applied Antiplatelet agents (aspirin, chimes), interferons, and cytotoxic agents.

Treatment of essential thrombocythemia folk remedies are not effective.Leading doctors are still arguing about the appropriateness of these or other schemes accepted treatment for this disease.It is not surprising that some patients try to treat essential thrombocythemia folk remedies.However, the proposed traditional healers and homeopaths herbs and drugs have only a short-term placebo effect.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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