28 May

Tricuspid regurgitation - symptoms, treatment

Contents:

1. Causes and types of tricuspid regurgitation

2. degrees and symptoms

3. Diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid valve regurgitation

Tricuspid regurgitation - failuretricuspid valve as a result of incomplete closing, in which the right ventricle, the reverse flow of blood into the right atrium.

Causes and types of tricuspid regurgitation

Tricuspid valve - one of the heart valves, which is located between the right atrium and right ventricle.Its function in venous blood passing from the atrium into the ventricle.During each systole (contraction), the valve closes, allowing blood to flow from the ventricle into the pulmonary artery and simultaneously prevents reverse its entrance to the atrium.But if the valve does not close completely, there is a regurgitation.

There are primary and secondary tricuspid regurgitation.Common causes of primary regurgitation:

  • rheumatism;
  • infective endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart);
  • myocardial right ventricle of
    the heart;
  • prolapse (bulging) of the tricuspid valve;
  • kartsinodny syndrome (appearance of fibrous plaques in the heart wall, its valves, major vessels);
  • Ebstein's anomaly (congenital abnormality associated with improper placement of the tricuspid valve).

secondary tricuspid regurgitation is the result of dilation (expansion, stretching) of the valve ring and the lack of functioning of the entire valve apparatus.The most common secondary regurgitation - a consequence of an overload of the right ventricle, which provoke and aggravate cardiomyopathy and pulmonary hypertension.

Degrees and

symptoms There are four degrees of tricuspid regurgitation, each of which is determined by the regurgitant jet length (reverse throw the blood).

When tricuspid regurgitation 1 degree the blood stream from the valve wall in the atrium just determined.The diagnosis of tricuspid regurgitation grade 2 indicates that the jet is in the range of 2 cm. Regurgitation 3 degree determined by the length of the jet more than 2 cm. The blood jet at the tricuspid valve regurgitation 4, characterized by a large degree of stretch in the right atrium.

symptoms are usually mild When tricuspid regurgitation.An exception are becoming rare cases of severe and acute tricuspid valve regurgitation, which is accompanied by severe right ventricular failure and severe pulmonary hypertension.

characteristic subjective (perceived patients) and clinical (identified in the survey), the symptoms of tricuspid regurgitation:

  • swelling and throbbing jugular (neck) veins;
  • ripple on the left side of the sternum, which is enhanced by inhalation;
  • ripple in the liver;
  • pulsation of the right atrium (rare);
  • lower limb edema;
  • fatigue;
  • shortness of breath;
  • coldness of extremities;
  • palpitations;
  • need for frequent urination;
  • abdominal pain;
  • heaviness in the right upper quadrant;
  • yellowish tinge to the skin;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • peritoneal dropsy;
  • enlarged liver;
  • increase the right ventricle;
  • increase in the right atrium;
  • change of heart tones;
  • pulsation pulmonary artery systolic and tremor (in severe tricuspid regurgitation);
  • pansystolic murmur, worse on inspiration;
  • protodiastolic mezodiastolichesky or heart sounds (in the case of severe illness);
  • aortic or mitral heart defect (in the case of regurgitation of rheumatic origin).

symptoms listed above are classified as possible, that is, the patient tricuspid regurgitation can manifest as all of them, and only a small fraction.Tricuspid regurgitation of 1 degree, as a rule, does not have any symptomatic manifestations, and discovered by chance during the passage of the next electrocardiography.In many cases, and at the 2nd degree tricuspid regurgitation sick person is not even aware of his illness.

Diagnosis and treatment of regurgitation of the tricuspid valve

very important thorough diagnosis, since the choice of treatment regimen for tricuspid regurgitation should take into account all the nuances associated with the disease: the degree of regurgitation, its cause, concomitant heart disease, the general condition of the patient andetc.

diagnosis of "regurgitation tricuspid valve" can be set only after the following diagnostic measures:

1. Physical examination, auscultation stethoscope tones and heart murmurs

2. echocardiography (echocardiography) - ultrasound, in which is determined by morphological and functional condition of the heartand valve apparatus.

3. Electrocardiography (ECG).On the electrocardiogram can identify signs of increased right ventricle and atrium.

4. Chest X-ray.Allows you to identify the symptoms of pulmonary hypertension, in particular, increase the right ventricle, as well as defects of the aortic and mitral valves.

5. Cardiac catheterization - the latest invasive procedure used for the treatment and diagnosis of diseases of the cardiovascular system.

Tricuspid regurgitation 1 degree usually does not require treatment and is seen as a normal variant.If it is connected to its cause lung diseases, rheumatic valve infective endocarditis, pulmonary hypertension, it is necessary to carry out treatment of the main provocateur disease.Tricuspid regurgitation

2 degrees, provided that it is accompanied by other cardiac pathologies, including heart failure, in many cases does not require treatment.If variations in the cardiovascular system is still detected, it is necessary to carry out conservative treatment of tricuspid valve regurgitation.Conservative therapy is carried out with diuretics (diuretics) and vasodilators (drugs that relax the smooth muscles of blood vessel walls).

treatment regurgitation grade 3 and 4 is almost always surgical, it includes: plastic valve, annuloplasty and prosthetics.

most often make the plastic valve, it is cross-linked, reduce the number of leaflets and carry out other manipulations to correct valvular insufficiency.Prosthetics tricuspid valve is rarely, only in the case of intractable adjustment extremely difficult changes.Annuloplasty is performed to restore valve function by installing rigid support ring, through which the valve is attached to the valve annulus.

Children valve not fully closed when tricuspid regurgitation of 1 degree is often a simple anatomical feature, and usually requires no treatment.Over time, it may take regurgitation may remain, but in any case if there are no serious heart defects and other cardiac pathologies, and overall development of the child and does not cause complaints, there is no reason to treat.Nevertheless, the need for the therapy or lack thereof can be determined only by the doctor.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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