1. infection Way
3. symptoms of toxoplasmosis
4. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy
5. Treatment of toxoplasmosis
Toxoplasmosis - a parasitic disease that people can get from the more than 180 species of domestic and wild animals.In humans, Toxoplasma causes toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii.
infection most common type of infection toxoplasmosis - the penetration of the parasite into the body by eating meat and eggs containing the pathogen of the disease and have not undergone sufficient heat treatment.Also, infection is possible in contact with the pathogen on the damaged skin and mucous membranes and intrauterine way.There are cases transmissible infection (through the blood-sucking insects and mites).
risk of toxoplasmosis in humans is increased by eating raw or insufficiently cooked meats, especially venison, pork or lamb.In addition, factors that significantly increases the risk of toxoplasmosis in humans are contact with infected animals and raw or
Infection can occur in the presence of the disease from their parents.In very rare cases of toxoplasmosis in humans may result from organ transplants or blood transfusions.
Diagnosis In most cases, toxoplasmosis occurs in a latent form, ie, it does not manifest itself.But even the active form of the disease does not allow to accurately define it as toxoplasmosis symptoms do not always possess a pronounced specificity.Therefore, the diagnosis of disease analysis is used for toxoplasmosis, which includes a blood test and a number of other studies.
analysis for toxoplasmosis is a serological study (study of the properties of blood serum, during which identifies antibodies to toxoplasma) or intradermal allergy test.One of the most frequent indications for analysis for toxoplasmosis is pregnancy.Also, this study tested for a positive response to HIV and other immunodeficiency states.
In the first stage of analysis going on antibody detection level of G. If the result of further research conducted in order to determine the activity level of Toxoplasma: detect the presence of a specific antibody M, performed PCR diagnosis (study of body fluids for the presence of DNA of Toxoplasma).To determine the period that has elapsed since the infection toxoplasmosis, investigated the degree of connection between the strength of G proteins and antibodies thereto.
During pregnancy, in addition to the analysis conducted for toxoplasmosis study of amniotic fluid for the presence of Toxoplasma.If a positive result is appointed by fetal ultrasound.Later in the newborn take a blood test to detect antibodies to toxoplasma IgM.
Toxoplasmosis is a congenital (fetal infection with toxoplasmosis during pregnancy) or acquired.Congenital toxoplasmosis may cause fetal death, neonatal death or severe pathology.Acquired toxoplasmosis can be acute or chronic.
Acquired toxoplasmosis acute form the symptoms similar to typhoid fever, and is characterized by high fever and an enlarged liver and spleen.Also toxoplasmosis symptoms of this type are often expressed in the form of signs of damage to the nervous system (paralysis, convulsions, headache, vomiting).
In the chronic form of toxoplasmosis symptoms include headache, low-grade fever (long-term rise in temperature to 37.5 - 38 ° C), increase the size of the liver and lymph nodes, reducing efficiency.Chronic toxoplasmosis may be accompanied by lesions of the heart, nervous system, eyes and other organs.
Contrary to the opinion of the prevalence of this disease in pregnant women, according to some statistics, toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is detected in about one percent of cases.Particular attention to this disease during pregnancy is not associated with its frequency, and the serious consequences of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy.
While infecting pregnant women with toxoplasmosis infection of the fetus is not in all cases.If the infection occurred in the first trimester of pregnancy, and the fetus is likely to become a hostage of the parasite, as in this period it is not yet able to withstand Toxoplasma.In most cases, the infection during the first trimester leads to miscarriage.
If Toxoplasma penetrated the body of the fetus at a later date, it is likely that the disease will not affect the unborn child with the same force.But in most cases of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy carries very serious consequences for the health of the newborn, as the disease primarily infects vital organs.
In identifying toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in the early stages of the disease, the woman is assigned a course of treatment, which resulted in substantially reduced the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis in the fetus is in the womb.
Usually the infected person who has a strong immunity, specific therapy for the treatment of toxoplasmosis is not assigned.However, when struck vital organs, there is inflammation of eyes (chorioretinitis), or other severe symptoms of toxoplasmosis, the patient is prescribed combination therapy of toxoplasmosis with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine.
When poor tolerability sulfadiazine is used instead of clindamycin.Treatment chorioretinitis and lesions of the central nervous system is carried out using glyukortikoidov.HIV-infected patients to prevent infection relapse appointed lifelong suppressive treatment of toxoplasmosis.
Treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women is made by means of spiramycin.If a woman is infected in the third trimester or fetal infection occurred after 17 weeks gestation, for the treatment of toxoplasmosis, pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine is used.In congenital infection to the combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine added tetrahydrofolate.
toxoplasmosis prevention measures include a thorough examination of pregnant women, the fight against toxoplasmosis pets, control over the observance of sanitary norms in the care of animals and the processing of products.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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