Toxemia ( preeclampsia ) during pregnancy and its prevention


1. Early toxicosis

2. Late toxemia (preeclampsia)

3. Prevention toxicity

toxicosis during pregnancy - is a complex of pathological changes in the bodyexpectant mother, which complicates the period of gestation.Scientists have linked morning sickness with the development of the ovum, which is accompanied by hormonal, immune, vascular changes.

Toxemia during pregnancy is early and late.Early toxicosis develops in the first three months of pregnancy.Its main symptoms - vomiting, nausea, and sometimes - dermatosis.The woman in this case is experiencing dehydration.Late toxemia, or preeclampsia occurs in the last trimester and can be expressed in edema, nephropathy, eclampsia.All these conditions are associated with the accumulation of fluid.Sometimes in the early and late stages of toxicosis may take a rare form - jaundice, liver, arthropathy, etc.

Early toxicosis

Early toxicosis occurs in the first trimester of pregnancy and is accompanied by low blood pressure, nausea, vo

miting, general weakness.The exact reasons for it are not fully elucidated, but one version of the disease is associated with increased activity of the nervous system of the future mother.The term toxicity is limited to 12-16 weeks, the second trimester pregnant woman's condition returns to normal.With the beginning of pregnancy, and changes affect the endocrine system, which leads to changes in the metabolic system.Some scholars point out that in the early stages toxicosis is largely similar to a neurosis.

The most common manifestation of toxicosis in pregnancy - is vomiting.It is preceded by symptoms of nausea, which may be aggravated in the morning, when traveling in public transport or as a reaction to the smell and taste.

Short bout of morning sickness experienced 90% of future mothers, but early toxicosis may take more serious.There are three degrees of vomiting.Vomiting first degree is not more than 5 times a day, it almost does not affect health, but is accompanied by prostration and drowsiness.At the second degree of vomiting attacks are up to 10 times a day, it is accompanied by weight loss and heart palpitations.In the third degree quickens vomiting up to 25 times a day and even arises spontaneously from any sudden movements.Pulse jumps to 120 beats per second, the temperature is raised to 37,5 ° C, the acetone found in the urine and high levels of creatine.

In severe forms of early toxicity future mother was placed in a ward of pathology of pregnancy, which provides a peaceful environment for a normal sleeping and waking, regular and adequate nutrition.Pregnant women in a state of severe toxicosis is contraindicated in bright light and noise, abuse and any other factors that trigger stress.

Late toxemia (preeclampsia)

Preeclampsia occurs in the last trimester of pregnancy.If early toxemia - a physiological phenomenon, then later - it is a pathology that requires treatment.

Preeclampsia during pregnancy is dangerous because it can have no external manifestations, it can be recognized only if the regular inspection.The main features of late toxicosis include violations of water-salt metabolism, high blood pressure, poor circulation, headaches, tinnitus, dizziness, and protein in the urine.Typical symptoms of preeclampsia during pregnancy - swelling and the feeling of thirst.

Preeclampsia occurs in 10-15% of pregnant women.Moreover, in the risk group and nulliparous women with a multiple pregnancy, owner of overweight and chronic diseases, as well as women and younger than 20 and older than 35 years.

Preeclampsia during pregnancy may take the form of severe - edema, nephropathy, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.

Dropsy - disease, which is accompanied by swelling and sudden weight gain.For the treatment of hydrocephalus is assigned to a diet low in salt and fluid.

nephropathy - a kidney disease and cardiovascular system, in which there is swelling, high blood pressure, protein in the urine.Nephropathy requires hospitalization and medical treatment, as it can lead to the death of the fetus, as well as to pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.

Pre-eclampsia - a condition in which the kidneys, heart, lungs, impaired.Preeclampsia is manifested in severe headaches, blurred vision, and requires hospitalization.

Eclampsia - a severe form of preeclampsia, which is accompanied by convulsions, loss of consciousness.Eclampsia can cause death of the mother and fetus.

order to timely detect preeclampsia, obstetrician appoints a number of analyzes:

- Urinalysis.Allows you to identify the protein, white blood cells, bacteria and other pathogenic factors, as well as to distinguish preeclampsia from pyelonephritis.

- Blood.It will help keep track of the level of hemoglobin, platelet count, liver enzymes and other distressing symptoms.

- ultrasound.It is necessary to evaluate the development of the fetus and to identify its delay time.

- CTG.It shows the level of mobility of the baby and heart rate to determine the presence or absence of hypoxia.

preeclampsia Treatment depends on the degree of disease severity.In mild toxemia need only correction of lifestyle and nutrition.When edema and mild form of nephropathy appointed sedatives, anti-oxidants, fitosbory, drugs that lower blood pressure.In the case of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in an outpatient setting, and correction is performed infusion preparations for rate regulation of water-salt metabolism.In severe cases, the doctor makes the decision for early delivery.

Prevention toxicity

For prevention of early toxicosis and gestosis pregnant woman should follow simple guidelines:

- observe the sleep and rest;

- tested regularly and undergo medical examinations;

- refuse canned food, alcohol, carbonated beverages;

- to enter into the diet of vegetable dishes, cereals, fruits, greens, legumes;

- drink clean water;

- often walking in the fresh air;

- avoid stress;

- do special gymnastics or swimming.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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