Hyperthyroidism - Causes, Symptoms , Treatments


1. Causes of hyperthyroidism

2. clinical picture and symptoms

3. thyrotoxic crisis

4. Treatment of hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism - itspecific set of symptoms, in which there is a high level of thyroid hormones in the blood.Once the disease is called intoxication (poisoning) thyroid hormones.Medical practice is also used synonymously with "Ray" (increased functionality of the thyroid gland).

The article focuses on the causes of, symptoms and treatment of hyperthyroidism.

Causes of hyperthyroidism

At the present time the main cause of hyperthyroidism is considered to diffuse toxic goiter (Graves-Basedow disease).This disease is fixed in 75% of patients.This disease is mostly inherited.It can be present simultaneously with other autoimmune diseases - for example, autoimmune thyroiditis.Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis have been reported in those family members who are their bearers (how to plant, are persons aged 20 to 40 years old).Very rare these diseases

in children or infants.

Multinodal toxic goiter and toxic adenoma considered another of the most common causes of hyperthyroidism.Thyroid nodules produce excess thyroid hormones.These diseases are most often found in the elderly.

Tireotropinoma - pituitary tumor that triggers stimulation of the thyroid gland.This disease is a very rare disease and occurs with symptoms of hyperthyroidism.

thyrotoxicosis may also be the cause of diseases that involve the destruction (degradation) of thyroid tissue and release of thyroid hormones in the blood.These ailments include destructive thyroiditis (postpartum thyroiditis, juvenile thyroiditis, painless thyroiditis and so on.) And Cordarone-induced hyperthyroidism, which develops as a result of iodine-containing therapy antiarrhythmics (Cordarone, Amiodarone).

overdose of thyroid hormones (Eutiroks, L-thyroxine) - another reason for hyperthyroidism.Such funds are usually prescribed to treat hypothyroidism.

clinical picture and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis

the most negative effect on the cardiovascular system.There is a term "cardiothyrotoxicosis", which is a symptom of cardiovascular disorders: hypertrophy, hyperfunction, dystrophy, Cardiosclerosis, as well as heart failure.

main symptoms of hyperthyroidism with the cardiovascular system are: atrial fibrillation, sinus tachycardia, metabolic form of angina and heart failure.If the patient still suffers hypertension, ischemic heart disease or some of the heart muscle defect, that hyperthyroidism in this case leads to rapid emergence of arrhythmias.

With regard to the musculoskeletal system, the intoxication of thyroid hormone causes weakness and muscle atrophy.Muscle weakness can be seen when the patient weight lifting, rising from his knees, up the hill, walking and so on.Patients look exhausted.In rare cases, a transient paralysis that can last from several minutes to several days.

nervous system also suffers from hyperthyroidism.In the pathological process involved muscles, peripheral nerves and the central nervous system.Patients generally complain of irritability, anxiety, obsessive fears, anxiety, insomnia, emotional instability (agitation, depression), change of behavior (crying, fussiness, excessive motor activity).Another of the most common symptoms of hyperthyroidism is a loss of focus - patients can abruptly switch from one thought to another.depression and lethargy syndrome usually develops in older people.Very often during intoxication thyroid hormones marked phobic symptoms (claustrophobia, cardiophobia, social phobia and the like).

Tremor - this is one of the earliest symptoms of hyperthyroidism.It captures the hand, tongue, eyelids, as well as the entire body.

If we talk about the digestive system, it is in individuals with hyperthyroidism, increased food intake, and there is an insatiable appetite.Increased peristalsis provokes frequent stools (diarrhea rarely).Patients tend to be very thin, and older people may even suffer from anorexia.

From the sexual sphere in thyrotoxicosis in women celebrated oligomenorrhea and reduced fertility.The representatives of the stronger sex is suppressed spermatogenesis and reduced potency.

addition, the pathology is characterized by an increase in the size of the thyroid gland, which increases the volume of the neck and impaired swallowing.

thyrotoxic crisis

Exacerbation of symptoms of hyperthyroidism is called thyrotoxic crisis.It is a serious complication of the underlying disease, which is accompanied by hyperactivity of the thyroid gland.To provoke a crisis can the following factors:

  • Much exercise.
  • Severe trauma.
  • Long ignoring intoxication therapy with thyroid hormones.
  • Surgical treatment.
  • Surgical treatment of toxic goiter.

thyrotoxic crisis shows sharp excitation (may even occur psychosis with hallucinations and delusions), which is then replaced by sleepiness, weakness, lethargy and muscle weakness.On examination: profuse sweating, eyes wide open, his face sharply hyperemic, hot skin, body temperature reaches 41-42 degrees.It is also noted high systolic blood pressure, tachycardia (200 beats / min), atrial fibrillation, sometimes - acute heart failure.In addition, intensified dyspepsia (diarrhea, vomiting, thirst, nausea).The progression of the crisis may lead to symptoms of acute adrenal insufficiency, and disorientation.

Treatment of hyperthyroidism

Before treatment of hyperthyroidism need to identify the root cause of the disease.

most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease.Today, there are three types of treatment of this illness: medical treatment (thyreostatics - propitsil, Merkazolil, tyrosol, Metizol and so on.), Radioactive iodine therapy, and surgery.

If the disease is caused by the destructive processes in the thyroid gland, treatment of hyperthyroidism will be the use of glucocorticoid hormones (prednisolone).Duration of treatment and dosage are selected individually.

With regard to surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism, it can only be done after treatment tireostatikami.

If we talk about people's methods, they usually lead to serious complications (especially on the part of the cardiovascular system).So before resorting to unconventional treatment of hyperthyroidism, you should always consult with your treating doctor, as self-results can be most unpredictable.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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