Thyroid - types , causes, symptoms, treatments


1. Clinical classification of thyroiditis and its causes

2. Symptoms of thyroiditis

3. Diagnosis and treatment of thyroiditis

thyroiditis - an acute, subacute orchronic inflammation of the thyroid gland.Thyroid - generic name for inflammation of the thyroid gland of different origin and course.

Clinical classification of thyroiditis and its causes

By the nature of the flow are acute, subacute and chronic thyroiditis.Acute and subacute, in turn, are divided into diffuse (extending to the entire thyroid gland) and focal (covering part of the thyroid gland).Among chronic thyroiditis most commonly diagnosed autoimmune thyroiditis which is also known as Hashimoto's goiter.

autoimmune thyroiditis in the human body develops certain immune aggression, after which there is abnormal development of antibodies that damage your thyroid cells are the same.The reason for such aggression - a failure in the recognition by the immune system thyroid proteins.

In addition, among the chron

ic thyroiditis release of fibro-invasive (in which the main thyroid tissue is replaced by fibrous (connective) tissue), post-partum, tuberculosis, syphilis and other thyroiditis.

reason thyroiditis - a genetic predisposition, the disease is often diagnosed in close relatives.

thyroiditis may develop on the background of viral and infectious diseases.Since the occurrence of acute suppurative thyroiditis can cause tonsillitis or pneumonia, purulent and often occurs after trauma or radiotherapy.

Subacute thyroiditis most commonly affects women and can develop after SARS, influenza and mumps.

Provided genetic predisposition bad environment, deficiency or overabundance of iodine in the human body, as well as elevated levels of radiation can cause chronic thyroiditis, in particular, the most common of these autoimmune thyroiditis.

Symptoms of thyroiditis

thyroiditis symptoms should be seen by types of the disease.

are the following signs of acute suppurative thyroiditis:

  • pain front of the neck, most clearly manifests itself in swallowing and turning the head;gives pain in the neck, jaw, ears and tongue
  • pain in muscles and joints
  • symptoms of intoxication, headache, nausea, weakness
  • swollen lymph nodes.
  • there is a painful enlargement of the thyroid gland, which can be easily detected by palpation (palpation) of its field
  • significant temperature rises (sometimes up to 40 ° C and more)
  • on the thyroid gland is formed abscess (boil)
  • near the thyroid gland visible redness of the skin.

acute purulent thyroiditis is characterized by similar symptoms, but usually they are less pronounced.When purulent abscess disease course were not formed.

Subacute thyroiditis begins to appear palpitations, sweating, weight loss, hand tremor.With further development of the disease occur following symptoms thyroiditis:

  • pain in the neck, radiating to the back of the head, ears, temples, jaw
  • thyroid gland is enlarged and painful
  • weakness, drowsiness, fatigue, decreased performance, headaches
  • may increase
  • temperature possible swelling of the face, dry skin, arrhythmia, violation of a chair.

Autoimmune thyroiditis in its initial stages - often asymptomatic disease.Only with time, when it becomes difficult to swallow and breathe, the patient begins to notice the enlargement of the thyroid gland.Neck as though it compresses and when the thyroid gland palpation felt its high density, uneven, and even an increase in roughness.The thyroid gland is unable to cope with its functions and produces too little or, on the contrary a lot of hormones, which usually leads to hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.In this case, thyroiditis symptoms in high blood pressure, sweating, arrhythmia.

When the diagnosis "chronic fibro-invasive thyroiditis" there is a significant increase and consolidation of the thyroid gland, which can affect one segment of it or the entire gland.Thyroid becomes large and immobile, the patient developed symptoms of thyroiditis: the feeling of squeezing the neck, resulting in difficulty in breathing and swallowing, hoarseness.Fibrous thyroiditis often referred to as a consequence of autoimmune thyroiditis.

Diagnosis and treatment of thyroiditis

diagnose the disease can be after such diagnostic measures:

1. Complete blood count.When thyroiditis, especially autoimmune thyroiditis, there is increasing the level of lymphocytes (immune cells) at a relatively low level of leukocytes.Also, SEC is increased.

2. A blood test for thyroid hormones.Increase or decrease in the level of hormones - one of the clinical symptoms of thyroiditis.

3. Immunogram.When thyroiditis observed changes in the immunological.

4. Ultrasonography.With the help of ultrasound can be easily seen an increase in thyroid and all the bumps and EN on its surface.

5. biopsy.Despite the fact that thyroiditis usually benign course, in some cases, doctors recommend by biopsy to exclude the possibility of malignant transformations disease.

thyroiditis Treatment should exercise endocrinologist.When selecting a treatment regimen, he should take into account the nature and severity of the disease and the patient's age.

thyroiditis treatment when acute course includes:

  • antibiotics (often doctors prescribe penicillin)
  • receiving anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin, indomethacin, Voltaren and others)
  • restorative treatment (drugs to enhance immunity, vitamin C and B, sedatives).

If thyroiditis is purulent, the therapeutic measures begin with the surgical removal of an abscess.When suppuration thyroiditis surgical treatment is necessary, as it prevents the probability of spontaneous opening of the abscess.

Provided competent treatment thyroiditis recovery occurs within 1.5-2 months.

therapeutic effect in subacute thyroiditis are based on the chronic administration of corticosteroids (steroid hormones of the adrenal glands), particularly prednisolone and dexamethasone.As replacement therapy drugs applied salicylic series.

Therapy of chronic thyroiditis, in particular autoimmune, involves taking thyroid drugs - drugs of thyroid hormones.

Thyroid drugs (thyroxine, tireoidin, triyodteronin, etc.) apply only if there is hypothyroidism.In the case applied hyperthyroidism beta blocker drugs that block production of thyroid hormones.thyroiditis treatment in this case is quite long.But if hormonal treatment improvement does not occur within four months, then corticosteroids are used as replacement therapy.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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