Typhus - prevention , symptoms, diagnosis


1. Types disease

2. symptoms of typhus

3. Diagnostics typhus

4. Treatment of diseases

5. Prevention of typhusfever

typhus - a disease of infectious origin, which caused rickettsia.The main danger of the disease lies in the fact that while it may affect the nervous and cardiovascular systems.

primary source of the pathogen of typhus of this type is always a sick person to infect the carrier - a louse.Infection occurs bloodsucker with the last 3 days incubation period before the 8th day of the normalization of the patient's temperature.Louse become contagious for about 6 days.At this time, R. prowazeki provoking epidemic typhus, louse penetrate the intestine and actively proliferate.When sucking blood from human louse faeces identifies with rickettsia.The bite itch starts, and if the skin comb, the blood easily get infectious agents.


Types There are two main types of the disease - endemic and epidemic typhus:

  • epidemic form of the disease is also referre
    d to as rat, flea typhus or American.It is caused by Rickettsia R. mooseri.In the United States every year, doctors recorded about 40 cases of the disease.Endemic typhus is found in warm climate regions, mainly in summer among rural residents.The illness occurs in the body of rats, man is transmitted by bites of rat fleas.
  • Epidemic typhus, a disease known as European, classical or nitty fever, as well as "prison" or "ship fever".It is caused by Rickettsia prowazeki - Gram-negative intracellular parasites still capable preserved in a dried state for a long time, usually on the bedding and underwear, in the feces of lice.Most often, epidemic typhus occurs in the territory of developing countries.

symptoms of typhus

incubation period lasts for about 2 weeks.At this time, typhus disease manifests itself in the form of headaches, muscle aches and a slight fever.Patient's temperature rises to 39 ° C and held slightly dropping at 4, 8 and 12 hours.The main symptoms of typhus are:

  • sharply headaches;
  • insomnia and other sleep disorders;
  • exhaustion, lack of strength;
  • sharp increase in patient activity;
  • red swollen face;
  • bleeding in the conjunctiva of the eye;
  • diffuse redness in the throat and pinpoint hemorrhages on the palate;
  • dry tongue with a gray-brown patina;
  • dry skin;
  • weakening of heart sounds;
  • enlargement of the spleen and liver (4 days).

characteristic symptom of typhus typhus considered rash, manifested in the 4-5 day.It is abundant, multiple lesions, which are located on the sides of the torso, bending arms, wrists and ankles, may affect the feet and hands, but on the face will never happen.For 2-3 days the person is covered by pinkish-red spots.

rash occurs in 2-3 days, and then it gradually decreases and completely disappears within 2-2.5 months.Sometimes it is a temporary pigmentation.The excited state is replaced by lethargy, often develop a collapse: the patient is prostrate, covered with cold sweat, heart sounds are muffled, pulse quickens.

Diagnostics typhus

In the initial period of the disease typhus is very difficult to diagnose.Only after the appearance of the severe symptoms of typhus, a rash, as well as carrying out the serological reactions possible with 4-7 days, doctors are able to make an accurate diagnosis.

typhus Diagnosis includes identification information on the presence of pediculosis and contacts with the infected patient.To differentiate illness from typhoid fever is necessary to assess the nature of the rash, changes in the nervous system and food.Diagnosis of typhus must contain a general analysis of blood, through which typhus disease can be distinguished by a number of infectious diseases.For the disease characterized by lymphopenia, mild leukocytosis, hypoeosinophilia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

Treatment of diseases

Without proper diagnosis of typhus qualified treatment is not possible.The most effective means of therapy are considered to tetracycline antibiotics, usually prescribed to them 0.35 g every 6 hours.It is also used for the treatment of chloramphenicol, 5% glucose and oxygen therapy.If the patient experiences a sudden excitement, we recommend taking chloral hydrate and barbiturates.A major role in the recovery of high-quality plays a vitamin, nutrition, proper care.

Recovery is characterized by a decrease in body temperature at 10-11 days of illness, the advent of appetite and normalization of the internal organs.

Next we will focus on existing prevention measures typhus.

Prevention typhus

To prevent typhus very important fight against lice, timely diagnosis, hospitalization and isolation of patients, sanitation clothing pest control patients in the waiting room.Prevention of typhus includes formalin-inactivated vaccine containing killed R. prowazeki.Previously used vaccines were effective.Currently, however, because of the low incidence and the presence of active insecticides value protivosypnotifoznoy vaccination decreased significantly.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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