Tetanus - prevention , vaccination , symptoms, signs


1. symptoms

2. Preventing tetanus

3. vaccination against tetanus

tetanus - an acute infectious disease that affects the human nervous system.

causative agent of the disease is the tetanus bacillus.The spores of this organism can exist for years on various subjects, in soil, faeces.They are very resistant to disinfectants and can withstand a temperature of 90 ° C for two hours.Under favorable conditions, spores germinate tetanus pathogen and generate very strong biological poisons - hemolysin and tetanospazmin.

source tetanus pathogen are birds, rodents, man.Tetanus bacteria can multiply and persist for a long time on the ground, where the dust gets in the room and on different subjects.

Pathogen Tetanus enters the body through broken skin or mucous membranes - wounds, frostbite, burns, abrasions, cuts, splinters.

In humans, very high susceptibility to the disease.At the same time those who had the disease, immunity to it is not formed, so the only effective way to preve

nt tetanus is still considered to be immunized.


tetanus incubation period is 3-30 days.

Most often the first symptom of tetanus is a pain pulling, dull character.Pain occurs in the place of entry into the body of the pathogen, even in a fully healed wound.Often added to signs of tetanus, irritability, sweating, headache, tremor, muscle tension and in contact with the infection.

After that, there are characteristic signs of tetanus:

  • tension and spasmodic contraction of the masticatory muscles, which makes it difficult to open the mouth;
  • difficulty swallowing;
  • neck stiffness (increased muscle tone);
  • «sardonic smile" - a specific symptom of tetanus, which appears wrinkled forehead, narrowing of the eyes, lips stretched with drooping corners of her mouth.

With further progression of the disease are observed the following symptoms of tetanus - a permanent body muscle tension, painful muscle spasms of the limbs and torso.Gradually the abdominal wall muscles become woody, limited movement of the limbs, the patient's breathing is shallow, rapid.

Over time, developing quite severe symptoms of tetanus - in the supine position, the patient bends with tilting head.In this case a person suffers from frequent seizures body.the patient's face becomes purple, it clearly appear the muscle contours.It featured the previous tetanus join pains, shortness of breath, increased body temperature, increased salivation, sweating, and shortly before death there confusion and delirium.

most critical period in the course of the disease - 10-14 hours.In the case of transferring dangerous phase tetanus disease symptoms gradually subside, and a period of recovery (the process of restoring the body's vital functions).It continues up to two months.

Symptoms of tetanus depend on the severity of the disease.

When lung during the incubation period is not less than 20 days.In this patient convulsions negligible or absent, the body temperature usually is not increased.But a person suffering from such symptoms of tetanus expressed as a strong and painful tension of the back muscles and moderate facial spasms.

incubation period with moderate current is 15-20 days.Present tetanus symptoms - convulsions, tachycardia, a small, low-grade body temperature.

For severe form is characterized by a short incubation period - 1-2 weeks.The patient suffers from frequent seizures, fever, tachycardia, increased sweating.

most severe form of the disease - lightning.Its incubation period - less than one week.The symptoms of tetanus develop within a few hours.The person suffers from frequent seizures, severe disorders of all organs and systems.In this case, the possible threat of heart failure, asphyxia or other serious pathologies.

Preventing tetanus

nonspecific tetanus prophylaxis includes observance of sanitary hygiene in the home, injury prevention.It is important to correctly carry out treatment of wounds and promptly seek medical institutions for help if contaminated abrasions, wounds.If necessary, administered intramuscularly vaccinated against tetanus - tetanus immunoglobulin or tetanus toxoid.In some cases, in addition to vaccination against tetanus using tetanus toxoid, causing the production of antibodies by the body's own.Such emergency tetanus prophylaxis should be held in the shortest time possible after infection.

specific prevention of tetanus involves carrying out a phased routine vaccination of the population with special vaccinations against tetanus.

vaccination against tetanus

One of the most effective measures of prevention against tetanus - vaccination, which was successfully used for the immunization of people of different ages.

The human body can not produce permanent immunity against the pathogen of the disease.The effect of vaccination against tetanus lasts only ten years.

first tetanus shot put children at the age of three months.Thereafter, it is repeated at 4,5 and 6 months.Kids at this age often have a pronounced reaction to the vaccine.They do not sleep, refuse to eat, and sometimes have a fever.

Subsequent vaccinations against tetanus is carried out in seven and fourteen.The older the child, the less pronounced reaction to the vaccine.But it is necessary to observe some precautions.Thus, vaccination against tetanus is not carried out a child with acute respiratory infections, allergic reactions, or having to be registered at the neurologist.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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