Dry Eye Syndrome - Causes, Symptoms , Treatment


1. Causes of dry eye syndrome

2. symptoms

3. Diagnosis and treatment of dry eye syndrome

dry eye syndrome - a complex disease,which develops due to the quality and reduce the amount of tear fluid.Tear fluid forms on the surface of the eye tear film that is protective, nourishing and optical functions.

With the development of the person experiencing a syndrome expressed discomfort with the usual visual load.

Causes of dry eye syndrome Specialists call many of the factors that trigger the appearance of the disease.

1.Dlitelny or uncontrolled intake of drugs that are able to disrupt the processes slezoobrazovaniya.Usually this vasodilators, antihistamines, drugs that are used in the treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, depression, oral contraceptives.

2.Chrezmernoe disclosure or incomplete closure of the optic fissure as a result of certain eye diseases.

3.Deformatsiya surface of the cornea.

4.Oslozhneniya multiple sclerosis, paralysis of the facial nerve.

5.Negativnoe effect on the mucous membrane of the eyes of devices for heating or air conditioning.These devices remove moisture from the air in the room.This will tear fluid evaporates from the cornea.

6.Nesoblyudenie rules of occupational health.The cause of dry eye syndrome often prolonged work at a computer or watching television long.At the same time the eye muscles are experiencing excessive stress, violated their normal rhythm flashing.

7.Noshenie contact lenses.

8.Negativnoe impact of volatile chemicals, cigarette smoke, urban smog.

9.Nepravilny diet, in which the body receives an insufficient amount of lipids and disrupted the normal composition of the tear fluid.

10.Prichinoy development of the disease may be age-related changes in the eye.In old age, some people develop multiple sclerosis lacrimal glands.


Symptoms of dry eye syndrome are determined by the severity of the disease.

most frequently in the initial stages of the syndrome in humans there is a sensation of a foreign body or "sand" in the eyes, which is accompanied by a strong lacrimation.Then comes the feeling of dryness in the eyes.

Patients suffering from cramps and burning sensation in the eyes, which intensified under the influence of conditioned air, smoke and wind.

In addition, signs of the disease are fluctuations in visual acuity throughout the day, in the evening blurred vision, photophobia.

characteristic for such a state is a reaction to instillation into the eyes of the patient drops of neutral, such as dexamethasone or chloramphenicol solution.At the same time patients experience stinging, burning or pain in the eye.

Almost all patients with symptoms of dry eye syndrome is the reduction or complete disappearance from the edges of the eyelids lacrimal meniscus.In their place is tarnished and swollen conjunctiva, which is a kind of "creeps" to the free edge of the eyelid.

Sometimes patients in the eyes detect different "contaminating" the inclusion in the tear film.They are air bubbles, the remnants of the breakaway epithelial strands, tiny lumps of mucus.These inclusions are floating in the lower conjunctival fornix, lacrimal meniscus, the thickness of the tear film.They can be seen with the slit lamp illumination.

frequent symptom of dry eye syndrome is a specific discharge from the eye.Because of high viscosity, it forms a thin mucous threads, causing discomfort to the patient.

The disease is often accompanied by the development of blepharitis - chronic inflammation of the eye edges.Lack of timely treatment of the disease can cause permanent, severe xerotica changes, such as perforation (breaking) of the cornea.

Diagnosis and treatment of dry eye syndrome

Diagnosis of the disease is carried out by an ophthalmologist.It consists of a patient survey and inspection of the eye, which includes biomicroscopy free edges of the eyelids, conjunctiva, cornea.

Upon detection of dry eye syndrome manifestations of the patient can be clarifying research:

  • additional sighting biomicroscopy of the front portion of the eyeball;
  • necessary functional studies - slezoproduktsii survey, the establishment of the tear film stability;
  • holding samples, which are aimed at identifying the changes inherent in the syndrome.

method of treating dry eye syndrome is selected for each patient individually.

At the initial stage of the disease successfully applied drops of dry eye syndrome containing artificial tears.The most popular drugs of this type - Oftagel, Vidisik, Korneregel.Their action aimed at restoring sufficiently stable tear film on the eyeball surface.In less severe disease prescribe drops of dry eye syndrome low viscosity.In severe and moderate forms - high and medium viscosity (gels).In the case of xerosis (dry eye mucosa) use low-viscosity medication without preservatives.

In addition, apply a drop of dry eye syndrome with inflammatory and immunotropic (affecting the activity of the immune system) action.In the presence of the patient's corneal degenerative changes in metabolic drug use.

With the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy and in severe cases the disease surgical treatment of this syndrome.The goal of surgery is to limit the outflow and evaporation of tears from the conjunctival cavity, increasing the inflow of tear fluid, eliminating the complications of the disease (corneal perforation, ulcer xerotica).

often used in the treatment method of closing holes tear tubule with a plug of plastic.This reduces the natural outflow and loss of tear fluid.The tube can be made of a resorbable collagen set at a time.For continuous wear silicone plugs are used.

Modern medicine uses new methods of treatment of dry eye syndrome.These methods include the implantation of special microreservoirs in the soft tissue of a patient with tubes excretion into the cavity of the conjunctiva, transplantation of the salivary glands in the conjunctival cavity.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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