2. Syndrome Symptoms Cushing's
3. Diagnosis and treatment of the syndrome Cushing's
Syndrome Cushing -a group of diseases that are caused by increased production of the hormone hydrocortisone.Hydrocortisone is produced by the adrenal cortex, and its excess may be associated with various pathological processes, such as hyperplasia, adenoma or cancer of the adrenal cortex, so this syndrome is also called hypercortisolism.
characteristic feature of Cushing's syndrome - obesity is on the face, neck, chest and abdomen.At the same time become thin limb and muscle mass diminishes.This pathological condition alters the metabolism, increasing blood glucose levels and stimulates increased fat deposition.For the first time the disease was described by Harvey Cushing American physician and neurologist Nicholas Russian Cushing, who worked independently of each other.Unlike Cushing's syndrome, Cushing's disease - a specific type of obesity in conjunction with high blood pressu
disease Based on the causes of disease, modern medicine are the two varieties of Cushing's syndrome - exogenous and endogenous.In the first case body syndrome due to features in the second - by external factors.
Exogenous Cushing's syndrome in children and adults, as a rule, is long-term use or overdose of glucocorticoids.This occurs in the treatment of asthma, rheumatoid arthritis.
endogenous hypercortisolism caused by internal pathological processes.The most common reason - a disease Cushing's, at which generated excess adrenocorticotropic pituitary hormone (ACTH).This hormone, in turn, stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal gland.Less common cause of the syndrome becomes endogenous cortical hyperplasia, and benign and malignant tumors of the adrenal cortex.
There is also a pseudo-syndrome, Cushing's, when all the outward signs of the syndrome is available, but the causes of disease are quite different.Thus, for example, occurs in obesity, chronic alcohol poisoning, stress and depression, in oral contraceptives and pregnancy.If a nursing mother drinks alcohol, the symptoms of pseudo-syndrome can occur in infants and infant.
In 9 of 10 patients of the main symptom of the syndrome Cushing's - is characteristic obesity.Fatty deposits accumulate on the face, neck, abdomen and chest.fat deposition occurs simultaneously with the atrophy of the muscles, which is especially noticeable on the legs and shoulder girdle.Of course this seems thin and fragile.Another characteristic symptom - "lunate" the face with redness of the cheeks.
Many patients complain of fatigue, weakness, avoid physical exertion and even squats and lifting can feel pain.
Another characteristic symptom syndrome Cushing - thinning of the skin.Skin gain marble color, appear purple-bluish stretch marks and dry areas are interspersed with local hyperhidrosis.The skin loses its regenerative properties - all cuts and wounds heal slowly.
From the bone symptom of Cushing's syndrome is osteoporosis - it occurs in 90% of cases.Hypercortisolism Patients complain of pain in the joints, followed by developing brittle bones.
Women symptom syndrome Cushing's is the increased production of male hormones, and as a consequence - hirsutism, or body hair of male type.The hairs grow on the upper lip, chin and chest.These symptoms are accompanied by violation of the menstrual cycle.Symptoms of the syndrome Cushing's men - decreased libido and erectile dysfunction.
the nervous system syndrome provokes headaches, mental disorders, depression, sleep disorders and psychoses.Regardless of gender and age on the background of the syndrome develop high blood pressure, arrhythmia, heart failure.Sometimes the disease provokes diabetes.
Cushing's syndrome in children is rare, mainly, its symptoms when taking glucocorticoids.As in adults, children syndrome is manifested in the form of excess weight, reduce muscle mass, muscle weakness, thinning of the skin, a tendency to bruise and glucose tolerance.In addition, Cushing's syndrome in children causes a slowdown in growth, fat deposition in the abdomen, chest, back and shoulders, "crescent-shaped" face, bluish stretch marks in the area of excess fat deposits.
Sometimes, in order to identify Cushing's syndrome, is enough visual diagnostics.But to confirm the diagnosis is necessary to establish the level of cortisol in the blood and urine, and then with the help of CT scan identifies the source of the increased production of hormones.This may be the pituitary or adrenal glands.The goal of treatment
syndrome Cushing's - the restoration of normal levels of hormones of the adrenal cortex in the blood, and for this it is necessary to remove the cause of Cushing.The method can be medication, surgery, or with the use of radiation therapy treatment.Treatment of the syndrome Cushing's should be timely, because after five years, this disease leads to death in 30% of cases.
Drug treatment includes drugs that reduce the production of hormones of the adrenal cortex, as well as means of complex therapy.As a rule, appointed mitotane, metyrapone, trilostane, Aminoglyutemid.
Radiation therapy - a method of treatment of the syndrome Cushing's, the most effective in the pituitary adenoma.Radiation therapy suppresses the production of adrenocorticotropic hormone and is used in conjunction with medication.
Surgical treatment of Cushing's syndrome is applied, if the illness is caused by a disease Cushing's, and tumor of the adrenal cortex.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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