26 May

The causative agent of anthrax and the symptoms , treatment and prevention

Contents:

1. anthrax

2. bacteria and symptoms of infection transmission routes

3. Treatment and prevention of anthrax

called Anthraxextremely dangerous zoonotic infectious disease, lightning growing in domestic animals and humans.Risk of anthrax bacteria is caused by the possibility of their use as biological weapons.Who is an active prevention of anthrax, involves the use of dry vaccine.

anthrax

anthrax is the bacterium Bacillus antratsis - Fixed rather large gram-positive spore-forming rod with chopped off the ends.Bacillus diseases have a number of features:

  • , revolves in the meat-media;
  • contain somatic and capsular antigens;
  • isolated exotoxin - protein complex, living organisms causing tissue swelling and light, the destruction of cell membranes, and death;
  • outside the body at the presence of oxygen to form spores that are resistant to high temperatures, disinfectants, and drying, can persist for years.

bacteria transmission routes and infection symptoms

anthrax is transmitted from infected animals to man, to care for them or working with their wool, milk and meat.Most often, infection occurs through food, water, soil.From person to person anthrax does not usually passes.

The disease manifests itself in different ways depending on the path of its penetration into the body:

1. Skin type of anthrax in humans is acquired by tactile contact with infected animal tissues or fluids.Primarily affects the mucous membranes and exposed parts of the body.This is the most common form of the disease.Symptoms of anthrax:

  • appearance of pink spots in the form of papules;
  • acidosis;
  • body temperature less than 36 ° C;
  • acute renal failure;
  • severe intoxication.

ulcer usually sporadic, less often they number 10-20.At first it formed a small spot painful red-blue color at the site of infection entry into the body, then it turns into a copper-red papule.Burning and itching quickly intensified, during the day on the site papules appear within the bladder with fluid.After another day ulcer increases to 2 cm in diameter, and after 1-2 weeks it becomes dense black scab.

2. Pulmonary form of anthrax in humans if the bacterial spores into the lungs with air.Lung tissue from bacteria enter the lymph nodes in the center of the chest, causing them to bleed and severe inflammation.At this time, the first symptoms of anthrax:

  • dull pain in the chest;
  • body temperature 38-39 ° C;
  • weakness.

then diverges infection throughout the body, affecting the blood vessels and the tissues surrounding the brain, often causing pneumonia.After the appearance of the first symptoms of anthrax patient amplified weakness, reduced oxygen levels in the blood, shortness of breath begins.Very often hit the pathogen in the blood to provoke bleeding in the brain.

3. Gastrointestinal view when bacteria penetrate through the throat of the disease in the digestive system with the water you drink or eaten with food.After pharyngeal infection develops a number of symptoms of anthrax:

  • high temperature;
  • neck swelling;
  • sore throat;
  • ulcers in the throat.

The gastrointestinal form of anthrax is characterized by an increase in the stomach and sharp pains.

Treatment and prevention of anthrax

treatment of anthrax in humans is carried out with antibiotics, primarily penicillin.Pathogenetic therapy involves crystalloid and colloid solutions, albumin, plasma and corticosteroids.When cutaneous form of anthrax in humans surgical intervention are inadmissible, because they threaten generalization of infection.

prevention of anthrax include activities undertaken Veterinary Service:

  • use of anthrax vaccine on farms and fur farms;
  • identification and isolation of sick animals;
  • burning of corpses of dead animals from infection;
  • disinfection of infected objects;
  • chamber disinfection of fur and wool.

People who have contact with infectious material or sick animals should be monitored in a health facility for at least 2 weeks.Crucial importance in the fight against the bacterium has anthrax vaccine.One of the first such vaccine created INLange.Now use the following types of anthrax vaccines:

  • vaccine STI;
  • anthrax vaccine derived from a strain № 55.

These vaccines have the dry type of immunity produced by 10 hours after administration and lasts up to 1 year.Less commonly, as a prevention of anthrax used protivosibireyazvennuyu globulin and serum.This antibody born in a couple of hours, but saved only 2 weeks.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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