25 May

Sepsis - Causes, Symptoms , Diagnosis, Treatment

Contents:

1. Causes and symptoms

2. Diagnosis and treatment of sepsis

3. neonatal sepsis: Causes, clinical picture, treatment

4. Prevention

Sepsis - a serious infectious disease that is caused by the spread in the blood and tissues of bacterial, viral or fungal microorganisms.

The people sepsis is often called "blood poisoning", but this name is only partially correct, since in addition to the blood infection undergo more lymph, urine, and almost all tissues of the body.However, the word "sepsis" and "blood sepsis" can be considered synonymous, because, despite the primary site and extent of disease organism infection, sepsis is present anyway.

Causes and symptoms of the disease

cause of sepsis - an infection.In most cases, the infection is bacterial in nature (caused by staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, Salmonella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other micro-organisms), less often viral or fungal.

Methods of getting infections in the body:

  • through open wounds (wound s
    epsis)
  • through the birth canal (obstetric sepsis)
  • in infectious diseases of the oral cavity (oral sepsis)
  • with purulent inflammation of the ear (otogenny sepsis)
  • due to septic complications after surgery (surgical sepsis).

The same strain of microorganisms in different ways effect on the human body.So one person streptococcal infection will cause the usual scarlet fever, and in another - sepsis blood.

At risk are people with low immunity, such as children, the elderly, cancer patients, people with HIV, diabetics, people who have suffered severe operation and greater blood loss.

Symptoms of sepsis depend on the nature of the disease (acute, acute, sub-acute, recurrent or chronic) and on the form of the disease (septicemia, or pyosepticemia hroniosepsis).

septicemia is streptococcus, the primary septic focus in most cases can not be detected.Symptoms of blood sepsis with septicemia:

  • consistently high body temperature
  • jaundiced skin and sclera eyes
  • fever, sweating
  • tachycardia, low blood pressure
  • lack of appetite, persistent nausea, vomiting, dehydration
  • violation of stool (constipation, diarrhea)
  • petechial (infectious) rash
  • hemorrhages in the skin, mucous membranes, internal organs
  • enlarged liver and spleen
  • intermediates of inflammation in the heart, liver, lungs, kidneys.

pyosepticemia develops in the case of "infection gate", that is the primary site of purulent.This form of the blood of sepsis is characterized by the process of formation of abscesses (metastases) in the organs and tissues of the body.

sepsis symptoms typical for septicopyemia listed above, but they appear moderate, the disease is not as rapid as in the course of septicemia.

When hroniosepsis main symptom of sepsis blood - slow poisoning and dehydration, as well as atrophy of the organs and metabolic disorders.

Diagnosis and treatment of sepsis

blood sepsis diagnostics is sometimes difficult to implement.This is for the reason that the causative agent of the disease difficult to detect in blood the first time.

To obtain positive culture results have to donate blood, pus, or pleural fluid several times.Some times you need to repeat and laboratory blood test.

Even before the final results will be known assays physician based on clinical disease must diagnose sepsis.Do it only by a competent doctor, as the symptoms of sepsis are often similar to the symptoms of other infectious diseases.

sepsis treatment is carried out in the following areas:

1. Depending on the shape and nature of the disease are appointed by the relevant spectrum antibiotics.Antibiotic treatment of sepsis carried drugs ampicillin, oxacillin, lincomycin, and the cephalosporins of the third and fourth generation.

2. immunostimulatory therapy.Increased immunity is carried out by plasma transfusion antistaphylococcal and immunoglobulin.With the same purpose held a blood transfusion.

3. Analgesic therapy.Implemented by taking pain medications as needed drugs with narcotic effect.

4. Local therapy.Conducted the autopsy, cleaning and drainage of the primary purulent focus, carried out by its antiseptic and dressing.

during treatment of sepsis, as well as during the rehabilitation of the patient shows a high-calorie food, fresh air, as well as physiotherapy.

neonatal sepsis: Causes, clinical picture, treatment

blood Sepsis ranked fourth in neonatal morbidity statistics.Almost one third of babies born on time and nearly half of premature babies, whose diagnosis of sepsis die from the disease has been carried out.

neonatal infection occurs in utero, during passage through the birth canal or in the postpartum period.

The most common causes of sepsis in newborns - mothers infectious diseases, difficult birth, a newborn pathology, violation of sanitary norms, improper care of the child.

neonatal sepsis is early or late character.

Symptoms of sepsis early period developed at lightning speed, within a few days after birth.In infants developing hyper- or hypothermia, observed vomiting, jaundice, hemorrhagic rash, respiratory disorder, significantly reduced body weight, increased internal organs.

Symptoms of sepsis late period newborns develop within 2-3 weeks after birth.Gradually, the child patient observed a general deterioration, hypothermia, the child is too excitable or sluggish, the bottom of the umbilical wound is inflamed, jaundice increases, decreases body weight, symptoms of the flu or develop pneumonia.

Later, in the absence of sepsis diagnosis and treatment, in addition to exacerbating the above symptoms are added again, periodic fever, vomiting, the baby loses consciousness due to an increase in liver and spleen swells tummy, reduced skin elasticity, the body is dehydrated.

treatment of sepsis in newborns can be almost the same as in adults.The child is placed in a special box, try to provide him with the most sterile conditions.

Selection of antibiotic therapy should take into account the age and condition of the child.Most often, for the treatment of sepsis in neonates used antibiotics of the penicillin group, as well as third-generation antibiotics - cephalosporins in combination with ampicillin.

Prevention

Prevention of sepsis include:

  • urgent and competent treatment of septic processes in the body
  • control of the immune system
  • observance of sanitary-hygienic conditions during surgical interventions and in the postoperative period
  • antibiotics onlyprescribed by a doctor.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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