25 May

KS - Types , Symptoms , Treatments

Contents:

1. types and forms of the disease

2. Causes and symptoms of Kaposi's sarcoma

3. Diagnosis and treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma

Kaposi's sarcoma - a cancercharacterized by multiple malignant tumors on the skin, lymph nodes, oral mucosa and internal organs.

types and forms of the disease

There are four main types of Kaposi's sarcoma:

1. Classical (idiopathic, European).Ill mostly elderly European men, the prevalence of the disease among women is several times less.Despite the fact that the classic type of Kaposi's sarcoma called a disease of older, more often it is observed in young people every year.

2. Endemic (African).Characteristic for the inhabitants of Central Africa, in particular for children in the first year of life.Chronic endemic type does not differ from the classical type.But his impetuous form in a matter of months, leading to the death of a sick person.

3. Epidemic (associated with AIDS).The most common type.It is often called the disease Kaposi's sarcoma

HIV-infected.Indeed, the greatest risk of developing the disease is present in patients with AIDS.

4. Immunosuppressive (iatrogenic).It occurs spontaneously during or after the process of immunosuppressive therapy.After such therapy cases of spontaneous cure of the disease quite often observed.

Each type of Kaposi's sarcoma characterized by acute, subacute or chronic form of the flow.

chronic form of the disease characterized by mild local symptoms and duration (10 years or more).Treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma in its chronic form effectively enough, you can achieve 15-20-year survival.

Survival of patients with subacute form of the disease can be up to three years.But with adequate treatment of subacute form can be converted into a chronic form, and achieve much greater survival rate.

acute course of the disease are fatal, usually within one year after diagnosis.The symptoms of Kaposi's sarcoma in its acute course very violently expressed.A large number of tumor formations that turn into deep ulcers, affect the human body rapidly, which leads to the inability to perform the body vital functions and its imminent death.

Causes and symptoms of Kaposi's sarcoma

Kaposi's sarcoma - a cancer specific.Until now, scientists are looking for the oncogene that causes it.In any case, it is known that a direct relationship to the emergence and development of the disease is herpes virus type 8th in conjunction with low antitumor immunity rights.But, nevertheless, cases are known and morbidity in high human immunity.

clinical picture of the disease depends on its type.

symptoms of Kaposi's sarcoma of the classical type:

  • on the feet, the side surfaces of the lower leg and hands appear reddish or bluish purple-bluish spots with clear boundaries (spotted stage).In this case no special discomfort the patient feels only in individual cases possible itching and burning;
  • after some time spots increase in size (1 cm) and take the form of individual elements of the spherical shape - papules, the merger that formed smooth or rough plaques (papular stage);
  • comes tumor stage in the absence of adequate treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma.It is characterized by conversion into plaques single or multiple elements of the tumor (up to 5 cm).These elements (nodes) are merged with each other, and eventually in their place are formed ulcers.

Nowadays, the classic type of the disease frequently takes an atypical aggressive course.The untypical symptoms of Kaposi's sarcoma of the classical type are swelling and lesions of the mucous membranes.

Endemic type of disease is often rapid in nature, and manifests the formation of ulcers in the mucous membranes, lymph nodes and internal organs.In the case of the rapid flow of endemic type of sarcoma treatment is ineffective and is more of palliative nature.

Symptoms of epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma type:

  • in 95% of patients have small cherry or purple spots (nodules, papules) of any localization.Most often it is the tip of the nose, the mouth, the mucous membranes of the eye, the ear canal, the genitals and legs.These formations are usually do not itch or hurt;
  • 40% of asymptomatic patients is almost defeat the gastrointestinal tract.Only in some cases, possible pain and bleeding;
  • in the case of destruction of the lung parenchyma and bronchial mucosa (20-50% of patients) there is shortness of breath, cough, difficult breathing, coughing up blood.

symptoms of Kaposi's sarcoma-type immunosuppressive almost always similar to the symptoms of the classical type of the disease in its chronic form.Typically, patches do not transform into tumor sites, do not apply to mucous membranes and internal organs.

Diagnosis and treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma

diagnosis of disease includes:

  • examination of the patient
  • analysis of the clinical picture of the disease
  • histological examination (internal and external biopsy) of affected organism
  • tissues in the case of internal organ involvementnecessary to carry out their ultrasound, endoscopy, radiography, CT and MRI needed areas.

There are two directions in the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma, and their selection depends on the shape and type of the disease, as well as the timeliness of its diagnosis:

1. The local and systemic treatment.It is carried out in order to prevent progression of the disease, improve the quality and extend the life of the patient, the translated acute form of the disease in the chronic.

2. Palliative therapy.It is carried out to eliminate the symptoms of Kaposi's sarcoma, conducted in acute forms of disease in those cases where the efficiency of an anticancer treatment is close to zero.

Local treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma includes:

  • cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen
  • surgical excision of the affected skin
  • intratumoral administration of chemicals
  • local irradiation
  • other methods.

Before starting the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma is important to the immunological analysis of blood, as the choice of method of treatment depends on the state of the human immune system.

Systemic treatment of chemotherapy, typically prescribed to patients with a good immunological background.In immunocompromised patients by chemotherapy observed toxic bone marrow.Therefore, treatment of KS in these patients is performed less toxic manner, e.g., via prospidin drug.

prognosis of acute and subacute form of the disease is almost always unfavorable.Median survival - 2 years.In addition, the vast majority of relapses occur.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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