Rhinitis - types , symptoms , treatments


1. Classification

2. Symptoms of rhinitis

3. rhinitis

Normally nasal cavity has a protective function - it warms, moistens andIt filters the air you breathe.But hypothermia, violation of protective mechanisms, allergic reactions and pathogenic microflora can lead to inflammation of the airways.The common people call it cold, as in clinical medicine - rhinitis.


By the nature of the course and the approach to the treatment of rhinitis are divided into infectious and non-infectious.The infectious form of the disease can be acute or chronic and non-communicable, or vasomotor rhinitis, divided in turn into neuro-vegetative and allergic rhinitis.If infectious rhinitis is associated with pathogenic microflora, the vasomotor rhinitis - a reflex reaction to irritation and allergies.

Acute rhinitis is caused by a viral or bacterial infection.He accompanies the flu, measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria, glanders, gonorrhea, and other diseases.Usually a runny nose appl

y to both halves of the nose and swelling appears in the turbinates.

Chronic rhinitis is divided into catarrhal, hypertrophic and atrophic.When the acute rhinitis is not a proper treatment, it becomes chronic catarrhal form.Catarrhal chronic rhinitis is characterized by thickened mucous membrane, mucous discharge and exacerbations - muco-purulent.

If this form of the common cold does not meet the proper treatment, then comes the stage of hypertrophic chronic rhinitis.The mucosa and submucosa grow, nasal congestion and discharge virtually no pass.Further development of the disease can lead to acute otitis media, or the next step - atrophic chronic rhinitis.Atrophy can be exposed not only to the mucous membranes, and even the skeleton turbinates.Rhinitis often accompanies this form of pharyngitis and laryngitis, as well as the defeat of lacrimal system and conjunctivitis.

Neurovegetative vasomotor rhinitis arise in response to reflex stimuli - cold, light, pungent smell and so on.The disease occurs in the form of attacks, which are often most concerned about in the morning.

Allergic rhinitis - the most common form of the common cold, which may be seasonal or year-round character.Seasonal allergic rhinitis (vasomotor) occurs as a result of increased sensitivity to pollen and mucosal fungal allergens.If allergic rhinitis is permanent, it is indicative of sensitivity to domestic or industrial allergens, such as dust, food, medicines, household chemicals, and so on.Sometimes rhinitis is an allergen, sometimes a group.Most often, allergic rhinitis is inherited.

separate form of the disease can be considered traumatic acute rhinitis, which occurs when it enters the nasal cavity foreign bodies, burns, surgery or adverse environmental conditions - the inhalation of dust, smoke or corrosive chemicals.

Symptoms of rhinitis

main symptoms of rhinitis are familiar to each of us from childhood - a stuffy nose, sneezing, and the appearance of mucous secretions.However, depending on the nature of the origin of the common cold symptoms varies.

In the case of the acute form the symptoms of rhinitis include fever and headache, impaired breathing, but because of the spread of the inflammatory process in the olfactory region of the patient at the time of losing the ability to feel certain smells.Initially, in the nasal cavity there is a feeling of burning and tickling, due to swelling of the nasal turbinates breathing through the nose difficult.

edema nasal mucosa violates the drainage of the sinuses and the middle ear and in the stimulation area provides ideal conditions for the development of opportunistic flora and bacterial complications.Then, clear discharge from the nose grow turbid, become yellowish or even greenish due to the presence of pus.With adequate treatment for this step is followed by recovery - headache goes along with sneezing and watery eyes, reduces the amount of bleeding, and nasal breathing becomes natural again.

acute rhinitis in infants occurs somewhat differently.Inflammation often goes to the nasopharynx, middle ear, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs.The main symptoms of rhinitis joined violation of the act of sucking, weight loss, sleep disturbances, irritability.

have catarrhal chronic rhinitis also have special displays.The main symptom of this type of rhinitis - nasal one, then the other half of the nose, and the selection can be serous, mucous or muco-purulent.Sam rhinitis is slow and does not pass after taking vasoconstrictor drops.

In atrophic rhinitis, chronic inflammation can spread to the mucous membrane of the pharynx and larynx.The main symptoms of rhinitis this type - dry nose, crusts in the nasal passage, the pressure and headaches.Secretions thick, yellow-green.

When autonomic and vasomotor rhinitis and copious liquid.The main symptom of rhinitis - sneezing, wheezing, itching and watery discharge before the appearance of the nose.


There are general principles of symptomatic treatment of rhinitis.For example, at normal temperature (if it is not about allergic rhinitis) is excessive drinking, home mode, hot foot bath.At high temperatures, it is recommended bed rest, taking antipyretics.During exacerbation of chronic rhinitis in the treatment used vasoconstrictive drops, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial drugs.

Some forms of rhinitis require a specific approach.For example, treatment of acute rhinitis type combined with physiotherapy and inhalation methods.Treatment of chronic hypertrophic rhinitis passes using cautery, cryotherapy, laser therapy.Treatment of chronic rhinitis catarrhal form requires the appointment of UHF currents UV radiation.When the complex of vasomotor rhinitis in sensitivity to an allergen reduction measures, including the reception of antihistamines.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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