1. reasons, forms and stages of retinoblastoma
3. Diagnosis and treatment of retinoblastoma
Retinoblastoma, or cancer of the retina - a malignanteye tumor that usually develops in early childhood from embryonic tissue.
most commonly diagnosed retinoblastoma in children in the age of two.The first signs of the disease is unusual illumination pupil of the eye, which are drawn to the attention of the child's relatives.Up to the age of five the diagnosis is established in almost all the sick children.Equally often suffer from both boys and girls.disease diagnosed in adults is extremely rare.The parents, who had been ill with retinoblastoma, healthy children are born rarely.
Depending on the causes and conditions of developing the disease distinguish between two forms of retinoblastoma.
Hereditary retinoblastoma.On this form accounts for about 70% of all cases.The child receives the mutated gene that causes the develop
sporadic (occurs by chance) retinoblastoma.The exact cause of this form of the disease has not been established.Experts point to the risk factors of the disease, like genetically modified food and poor environment.Sporadic retinoblastoma usually affects one eye.It appears much later than the inherited form, but it is better to treat.
Experts identify two stages of retinoblastoma - endophytic (intraocular) and exophytic (extraocular).
When endophytic stage retinoblastoma malignant tumor grabs eyeball.At the same time there is an increase in intraocular pressure, detachment of the retina, glaucoma develops, and, later, blindness.The patient has nausea, vomiting, pain, and in some cases develop anorexia (loss of feeling of hunger).
When exophytic retinoblastoma stage malignancy affecting the sclera, choroid.Then the tumor penetrates the optic nerve in the intracranial space, captures the central nervous system.Metastases affect lymph nodes.
sometimes occur in one eye formation of two growth stages.
manifestations of retinoblastoma symptoms in children depends on the size of the tumor and its location.
first sign of the disease is a white pupillary reflex (leykokoriya), which is also called syndrome of "cat's eye".This symptom is manifested even at a sufficiently large amount of the tumor or tumor of the retina bundle.Tumor mass protrudes beyond the lens and becomes visible through the pupil.Even before the appearance of a white pupillary reflex small tumors often provoke the loss of the central, then, and binocular (stereoscopic) vision.As a result, the patient develops strabismus, one symptom of retinoblastoma.Because strabismus noticeable to others, reveal his young children were significantly more likely than the loss of vision.
intraocular tumor does not cause pain until the inflammation or secondary glaucoma (increased intraocular pressure).The signs of retinoblastoma include pain caused by increased intraocular pressure.
In the later stages of retinoblastoma, when cancer cells spread through the body, the patient's general condition is much worse, there are symptoms of intoxication.
diagnose retinoblastoma is possible at an early stage of development, even before the first symptoms.Ophthalmologist at survey can clearly see the tumor, even of small size.
But for successful treatment of retinoblastoma is necessary to determine the extent of the tumor process.To do this, perform the following diagnostic tests:
the treatment of retinoblastoma use surgical technique, chemotherapy and radiation method.
When tumors of small size are proven therapies such as photocoagulation and cryotherapy.Photocoagulation - treatment method using laser beams.Cryotherapy in the treatment of tumors are frozen using a special probe, which is used on the sclera (the outer surface of the eye).This photocoagulation is used in case of defeat back of the retina division and cryotherapy - in the case of defeat, the front of the retina department.
Surgical treatment of retinoblastoma usually involves the removal of the affected eye (enucleation).It is held with large tumor size, growth of its vessels, the impossibility of recovery.The eye was removed and sent for histological examination.This method is most effective in terms of patient survival.After 6-8 weeks after the surgery is performed prosthetic eye.
most often in the treatment of this disease have resorted to radiotherapy.There are external and localized radiation therapy.Retinoblastoma is very radiosensitive, which contributes to the high efficiency of this method.However, radiation often results in damage to the surrounding tissues of the eye, the appearance of cataracts, the development of secondary bone tumors.Significantly lower risk of local complications when using localized radiation therapy.
Chemotherapy with retinoblastoma is treating antitumor agents.With it you can reduce the size of the tumor, followed by an opportunity for the local treatment (photocoagulation, cryotherapy).Chemotherapy may be local or general, in which drugs are injected directly into the region near the tumor.
retinoblastoma choice of method of treatment determined by the doctor for each patient individually.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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