24 May

Rheumatism - causes, symptoms, treatments

Contents:

1. reasons rheumatism

2. symptoms of rheumatism

3. Rheumatism in children

4. Diagnostics

5. treatment of rheumatism

6. Prevention

Rheumatism or rheumatic fever - is a systemic inflammation of the connective tissue preferentially localized in the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system and the musculoskeletal system.Rheumatism is a chronic disease that is characterized by periods of relapse and remission.The primary attack of the disease usually occurs in children and adolescents (7-15 years).

reasons rheumatism

Experts believe that the disease is "triggered" by special bacteria - beta-hemolytic streptococcus group A. Once inside the body, they can trigger the development of sore throat, pharyngitis, tonsillitis or lymphadenitis.However, articular rheumatism may be caused by the infection only if a person has a number of immune system defects.According to statistics, rheumatism sick only 0.3-3% of patients with acute streptococcal infection.

Risk factors for the development of rheumatism are:

  • presence of rheumatic arthritis and systemic connective tissue diseases in relatives of the 1st degree relatives (father, mother, brothers and sisters);
  • frequent nasal infections and transferred an acute streptococcal infection;
  • content of protein in human body such as a B cell marker D8 / 17;
  • age from 7 to 15 years;
  • female.

symptoms of rheumatism

Typically, the first symptoms of rheumatic fever occur 2-3 weeks after pharyngitis or tonsillitis.The patient feels pain in the joints and general weakness, which may be accompanied by a sharp increase in body temperature.Sometimes, the disease develops in a latent form and is practically not accompanied by symptoms of rheumatism: low temperature (less than 37 degrees), moderate weakness, joints and heart work well.In such cases, the person starts to worry only when he raises serious problems with joints.

Usually the disease affects the medium and large joints: pain in the elbows, knees, feet and wrists.This pain may appear suddenly and disappear just as rapidly, even in the absence of treatment.But this does not mean that rheumatic joints left you.

Another important symptom of rheumatism is the emergence of problems with the functioning of the heart: a violation of the heart rate, heart pain or disruptions in heart rhythm.Patients concerned about weakness, sweating and shortness of breath.These disorders are associated with inflammation of the heart - rheumatic heart disease.It was noted that in 25% of cases of rheumatic heart disease contributes to the formation of heart disease.

After months or even years after the first attack of rheumatic fever may occur repeated exacerbations with similar symptoms.They can also lead to joint deformity and development of heart disease.

If rheumatism affects the nervous system, the patient has involuntary contractions of various muscles (legs, trunk, neck, or face).It appears fanciful movements, all sorts of grimaces, slurred speech, handwriting and a violation is called "a small choir."These disorders have been reported in 12-17% of people suffering from rheumatism (more common in girls aged 6-15 years).

Rheumatism in children

Children rheumatism appears much softer than in adults, but it can be chronic.The main symptoms of rheumatic fever in this case may be a general malaise, increased heart rate and slack joint pain, do not interfere with active movements.If the disease does not affect the work of the cardiovascular system, rheumatism, so children do not pose any threat to the health of the patient.

Diagnostics

diagnosis of rheumatism of the joints can deliver only rheumatologist.To this end, it conducts a comprehensive examination of the patient.

body prescribe blood tests to detect signs of inflammation.In addition, an immunological blood tests to help identify the presence of specific substances in the blood characteristic for rheumatism.These substances are formed in the blood for at least a week after the onset of disease and to reach the maximum concentration of 3-6 week.

To clarify the extent of the heart lesion is performed echocardiography and electrocardiography (ECG) of the heart.X-rays will assess the condition of the joints.If necessary, also conducted a biopsy, a diagnostic arthroscopy of the joint and the joint puncture with a careful study of the synovial fluid.

If the damage other organs may need additional advice by specialists.

treatment of rheumatism

main objective of the treatment of rheumatism - is the elimination of inflammation and heart failure.If rheumatic fever in children and adults in the form of acute, such patients is recommended bed rest, since even minor physical activity can worsen the patient's condition.In the treatment of rheumatism actively using salicylates, but it is important to remember that antibiotics can help only if the disease is on the 1st stage of development.

rheumatism treatment must necessarily include drug therapy.Of the drugs most commonly used diclofenac, aspirin, indomethacin, penicillin, dexamethasone, ampicillin, hystoglobulin, prednisolone, etc. The effect of these drugs is different: some of them are aimed at fighting inflammation and preventing the emergence of new foci of inflammation, and others - to increase.immune system.

In the treatment of rheumatism of the joints is actively used physiotherapy (infrared, UHF warming, iontophoresis and other procedures).After removal of the acute phase of the disease and prescribe therapeutic massage and gradual addition of light exercise.All these measures should be carried out under the supervision of a specialist.

Prevention

The most important point of prevention of rheumatism of the joints - a timely warning of the human body streptococcal infection.That is why the treatment of rheumatism doctor must appoint penicillin.Also, as a preventive measure may be applied drugs such as sulfazin or bitsillin.

The human body does not develop immunity to this infection, so when re-infection cases of rheumatic fever in children and adults can be repeated.That is why it is important to prevent the development of disease and its complications in the earliest stages of its development.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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