Rickets - signs, symptoms in children , treatment

A permanent deficiency in the body of vitamin D can lead to various complications, the most serious of which is rickets. With this disease, not only the bone tissues, but also muscle, nerve fibers are affected.

The article deals with the signs of rickets, the symptoms of this disease, as well as the early development of childhood rickets( up to a year).

Development of the disease

Rickets are most often affected by children from birth to 6 years of age: it is during this period that there is active growth and formation of the musculoskeletal system, but the most pronounced symptoms have rickets up to a year. In adults, a condition similar to rickets can also be observed, but it is already called osteomalacia( "softening of the bones").

It is believed that changes occurring in the skeleton or other organ systems are directly related to a lack of calcium and phosphorus. But the problem is not in quantity, but in speed of digestion, for which vitamin D is responsible. Thanks to it, tissues are prepa

red for the intake of calcium and phosphorus, and the microelements themselves become available for assimilation.

Vitamin D can enter the body with food, and also form itself in the skin by exposure to ultraviolet light.

In children, rickets up to a year may be caused by a shortage of some foods in the diet or by a rare exposure to the sun. In addition, the cause of its development is a violation of the process of the exchange of cholesterol and vitamin D.

It is noted that most often rickets develop in children born before the appointed time, because they have a general weakness of the body and unpreparedness for independent nutrition.

There are cases of congenital rickets in children. This is due to the fact that during pregnancy in the woman's body there was a lack of essential microelements and vitamins. Another cause of congenital rickets may be poor placental conductivity, although miscarriages usually occur in such cases.

Symptoms and signs of rickets

Signs and symptoms of rickets are two different things. Symptoms are those sensations that the patient feels, and signs of rickets are what outsiders or doctors see. These include:

- the appearance of constant pain in the bones;

- excessive sweating in the occiput;

- delay in the process of teething;

- reduction in strength of bones( easily broken);

- loss of firmness of bones, they become plastic, which can be checked by pressing on the occipital bone, it will remind you a rubber ball;

- when palpation, specialists find rib-cartilaginous swelling on the chest;

- slowing the child's physical development;

- the chest becomes flatter;

- there is a noticeable deformation of the skull, spine and pelvic bones;

- Wrist widens significantly;

- Muscular spasms that are uncontrollable become noticeable.

There is a concept - a period of residual phenomena, at this time there are no active signs of rickets, but the previously deformed bones( flat feet, large head, incorrect bite) are retained.

Diagnosis of rickets

As soon as you notice the first signs of rickets in your child, you should immediately check with a specialist. At reception it is necessary to tell in detail all the symptoms of rickets that disturb your child, in the first place, these are bone changes, stool disorders and general excitability.

Earlier, when rickets were diagnosed, X-rays of the bones were made to identify possible changes, currently this method is not used for diagnosis.

Because the signs of rickets are similar to certain diseases, the diagnosis should be made strictly after carrying out the necessary laboratory tests.

The simplest method of diagnosis is a laboratory urine test, which allows you to determine the amount of calcium that goes with urine. You can also conduct biochemistry of blood and urine and determine the level of calcium and phosphorus in the body.

Treatment of rickets in children

Rickets therapy includes not only the intake of vitamin D and medications, but also the observance of a certain regimen, regular walks in the fresh air, various massages.

In summer time it is necessary to ensure that the child is on the street at least 2 hours a day, in winter this time can be slightly reduced. Particular attention should be paid to regular cleaning and airing the room.

Particular importance is attached to the nutrition of the child, as a violation of the digestive process will significantly reduce the amount of absorbed calcium and vitamin D.

The selection of medications should be carried out by a specialist, in no case can you select the dosage of vitamin D yourself, since this can only negatively affect the health of the child. The necessary amount of this vitamin is selected by specialists individually for each child, taking into account the symptoms of rickets, age, heredity, the nature of nutrition and even the time of the year.

Currently, in the treatment of rickets, medicinal products such as aquaderim, viganthol and, of course, vitamin D itself in oily or aqueous form are used. Since the intake of vitamin D can reduce the level of calcium in the blood, in parallel, it is prescribed calcium preparations( gluconate, calcium lactate).

Prevention of the disease

First of all, it is necessary to remember about rickets for future mothers, therefore during pregnancy, you should strictly monitor the balance of nutrition, in some cases, experts recommend the administration of multivitamins and calcium. Breastfeeding plays a special role, since it gives the child enough calcium and vitamin D. From the mother,

In order to avoid rickets up to a year, especially when the baby is born in the autumn or winter, experts recommend that as a preventive measure,one drop of vitamin D, under the supervision of a pediatrician.

As an important measure of preventing rickets in children are outdoor walks in sunny weather, besides it is recommended to carry out activities aimed at tempering and general improvement of the child's body in order to keep his muscles in a constant tone, and calcium is digested in the required amount.

Contents:

1. Development of the disease

2. Symptoms and signs of rickets

3. Diagnosis of rickets

4. Treatment of rickets in children

5. Prevention of disease

Attention!

This article is only for educational purposes and is not a scientific material or a professional medical advice.

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