Ovarian cancer - symptoms , treatments , metastasis


1. Causes of illness

2. Stage Ovarian Cancer

3. Symptoms of the disease

4. Diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer

ovarian cancer - a group of different types of neoplasms which occur in ovarian tissue.The most common type of cancer in which malignant cells observed along the surface of the ovaries.In the same region often form cysts and benign tumors.

Causes of illness

The exact causes of ovarian cancer are not installed.Experts say some of the factors that trigger the onset of the disease.

risk of developing the disease is significantly higher in women who have not given birth and breastfed.This is attributed to the fact that women who had children were significantly fewer ovulations (egg out of the follicle, ready for fertilization).When ovulation occurs every little break tissue site.Thereafter, the surface of the healing process in normal ovarian cells may begin to change, resulting in a degenerate over time into the tumor.

age factor.Ovarian cancer women get

sick more often after 50 years.In young women, girls disease is extremely rare.

Hereditary predisposition.It was found that the genes that predispose to the development of ovarian cancer can be inherited both maternal and paternal.

Effect of hormonal agents.Experts point to the influence of hormones on the development of the disease, depending on the age of the woman.So young women receiving hormonal agents significantly reduces the risk of developing the disease.In older women hormone therapy, on the contrary, it increases the risk of disease.

Communication of cancer with breast cancer.Very often in women with breast cancer are diagnosed with ovarian cancer.

Stage Ovarian Cancer

There is a classification of ovarian cancer stages, which was developed by the International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.It takes into account the degree of involvement in the process of malignant lymph nodes and surrounding tissue.

first stage ovarian cancer.It is characterized by lesions of the ovaries only.

1A - struck only one ovary.Thus it is not struck by its capsule, the tumor did not pass out, no ascites.

1B - impressed both ovaries.The capsule is intact, no tumor on the outside, there is no ascites.

1C - struck by one or both ovaries.The ascites cancer cells develop, the process involved in the tumor and ovarian capsule surface.

second stage.Malignant process develops in one or both ovaries and has affected organs and / or pelvic tissues.

2A - tumor process affected the uterus or fallopian tubes.

2B - the tumor has spread to the pelvic tissue.

2C - besides the symptoms of ovarian cancer 2A and 2B are detected in ascites cancer cells involved in the malignant process the capsule and the surface of the ovaries.

third stage ovarian cancer.Tumor process develops in one or both ovaries, extended to the abdominal cavity.Amazed retroperitoneal and inguinal lymph nodes metastases of ovarian cancer present in the liver.

3A - by visual inspection of the cancer is visible only in the pelvis.Microscopic examination of the abdominal cavity defines seeding.

3B - metastasis of ovarian cancer in the abdominal cavity of 2 cm, retroperitoneal and inguinal lymph nodes are not affected.

3C - metastasis of ovarian cancer in the abdomen reaches more than 2 cm in diameter.Or retroperitoneal and inguinal lymph nodes are involved in the malignant process.

Symptoms of the disease symptoms of ovarian cancer are non-specific, as they are in many ways similar to other common diseases.Most often, the cancer displays similar diseases of the bladder or gastrointestinal tract.In many cases, quite a woman being treated for other diseases and only later diagnosed with ovarian cancer.

main symptom of ovarian cancer symptoms is a constant, which is often compounded over time.For example, unlike oncological diseases, digestive system diseases linked to food intake or certain products.

The most common symptoms of ovarian cancer are as follows:

  • discomfort and / or pain in the pelvis;
  • urgent need to urinate;
  • swelling or bloating, a feeling of overeating.

addition to the basic, frequent additional symptoms of ovarian cancer:

  • pain in the abdomen, in the lumbar region;
  • pain during sexual intercourse;
  • unexplained problem with the nature of the stool, which include constipation or diarrhea;
  • constant nausea, flatulence, indigestion;
  • decrease or loss of appetite;
  • frequent urination;
  • inexplicable increase in waist circumference;
  • speed dial, or weight loss;
  • constant fatigue, weakness.

Usually after the first signs of ovarian cancer before the diagnosis of the disease takes place 3-6 months.

Diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer

For successful treatment of ovarian cancer early diagnosis is very important.The doctor examines the pelvis, uterus, vagina, tubes, ovaries, bladder, and rectum.

for more accurate diagnosis using pelvic ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, scintigraphy (radionuclide examinations).In addition, the intestine endoscopy, laparoscopic biopsy method.

patient's blood is tested for specific tumor markers determine the biochemical characteristics of the blood.

treatment of ovarian cancer is combined.This includes the surgical removal of a malignant tumor, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

sparing surgery is performed only in the early stages of the disease at the small sizes of the tumor and the absence of metastases.In all other cases a radical surgery.It consists in the removal of the uterus with tubes, pelvic tissue with lymph nodes, omentum, which covers the abdominal organs.

If possible surgical treatment of ovarian cancer is performed by laparoscopy.This method is minimally invasive and significantly reduces the time of surgery and recovery period.

as compulsory additional method of treatment of ovarian cancer chemotherapy is used.Use two types of chemotherapy - General purpose and those that are administered directly into the pelvic area.This method is used before surgery to reduce the size of the tumor and in the postoperative period to destroy the remaining cancer cells.Carrying chemotherapy is of great importance in the case of disseminated nature of the tumor.

Sometimes radiation therapy is used in the treatment of this disease.In the peritoneal cavity of the patient is administered a radioactive colloidal gold.

Since ovarian cancer has no early symptoms, it is important to undergo annual checkups at the gynecologist, ultrasound diagnostics make the groin area.Regular check-ups provide an opportunity to identify cancer early degree in 75% of patients.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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