1. The causes of testicular cancer
3. Stages of testicular cancer
4. Diagnosis and treatment of diseases
testicular cancer - a malignant tumor that develops from the tissues of male sex glands located in the scrotum (testes).
Most often the disease occurs in young men 15-40 years.Therefore, it is called "the youngest tumor."
exact cause of testicular cancer is cancer and other diseases is not known.
But experts unanimously point to the main factor provoking the disease - cryptorchidism.This is a condition where in utero or in the first months of life boys testicle does not descend into the scrotum.It remains in the inguinal canal or abdomen.Testicular cancer most commonly occurs in patients with an egg is located in the abdominal cavity.According to statistics from the cancer of the testicles occurs in 3-14 times more common in men with cryptorchidism.
In addition, there are factors that increase the risk of testicular ca
main symptoms of testicular cancer following:
At the beginning of the disease symptoms of testicular cancer are virtually absent.Then, the patient usually detects one testicle seal.The egg begins to grow rapidly, the tension is felt in it, and often painful.Malignant tumor itself does not cause pain.It appears after grasping the spermatic cord tumor.Another symptom of testicular cancer is its deformation, increase in density.The affected half of the scrotum is considerably increased due to fluid accumulation in the egg shells.If the testicle has not lowered into the scrotum, the tumor can be felt in the inguinal canal, where it is painful and tight.In the case of testicular location abdominal tumor often grows to a significant size.It is able to occupy half of the abdominal cavity.
Further signs of testicular cancer associated with the development of metastases.These include such features:
This testicular cancer symptom is back pain associated with nerve root compression of retroperitoneal lymph nodes, which significantly increased.swelling of the feet develop metastases resulting overlap of the inferior vena cava and lymph.Symptoms testicular cancer may include displays hydronephrosis and renal failure (renal pelvis stretching).This is due to compression of the ureter tumor.Shortness of breath and cough are caused by the patient's testicular cancer metastases to mediastinal lymph nodes.
Some forms of testicular cancer dishormonal provoke symptoms.In adult men they manifest impotence or decreased libido, feminization (the development of female secondary sexual characteristics).The boys can develop a mutation of voice, hirsutism (excess body hair growth), gynecomastia (breast enlargement).
There are different classifications of testicular cancer stages.Most often, doctors use the following classification:
known international classification of testicular cancer TNM stages.In it the main parameters of a specific cancer are indicated by the letter.
T - denotes the center of the tumor:
- T1 - The tumor is located within the tunica;
- T2 - the tumor is within the tunica, and the egg is deformed and enlarged;
- T3 - the tumor penetrates beyond the tunica and affects the epididymis;
- T4 - the tumor penetrates beyond the testicle and spermatic cord or affecting scrotum.
N - status of the nearby lymph nodes:
- N0 - no information on the lymph nodes;
- N1 - metastases in the lymph nodes are not detected during palpation, they can be detected by X-ray or radioisotope;
- N2 - metastases in the lymph nodes can be felt.
M - the presence of distant metastases:
- M0 - no distant metastases;
- M1 - distant metastases are present.
For successful treatment of testicular cancer is very important timely diagnosis and competent.
initial diagnosis of testicular cancer is a patient examination, inspection and palpation of the scrotum and the possible areas of cancer metastasis.To exclude or confirm the presence of metastases in the internal organs and lymph nodes, conduct abdominal ultrasound.In order to establish communication with existing malignant tumor formations scrotal ultrasound and examine the testicle itself.In the diagnosis of testicular cancer is carried out X-ray light to see in them the presence of metastases.In modern medicine for accurate diagnosis often use CT scans and MRI.
Complex treatment of testicular cancer involves the use of surgical techniques, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
surgical method allows to establish the form of the tumor and identify the type of operations and future treatment.If confirmed by testicular cancer, one or both testicles removed depending on the situation.With the defeat of metastatic lymph nodes removed them too.
addition to surgical methods for the treatment of testicular cancer using radiation therapy and chemotherapy.These methods are used postoperatively to destroy any remaining cancer cells, or prior to surgery to reduce tumor size.
Radiation therapy is the exposure of cancer cells with radioactive radiation.Under the influence of radiation malignant testicular cancer cells are killed.
Chemotherapy - a method based on patients receiving chemotherapeutic agents.This medicinal substances, which are able to stop the growth of cancer cells and destroy them.
prognosis for patients with testicular cancer in most cases favorable.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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