tongue cancer - signs, symptoms , treatment, prognosis


1. Causes of tongue cancer

2. symptoms

3. tongue cancer treatment

tongue cancer - a malignant tumor of the tongue thatit is formed of mucous cells.

tumor quickly develops and spreads to the lymph nodes, bones, lungs, liver and brain.

The disease is most common in people older than 40 years.At the same time men are affected 5-6 times more often than women.

Causes of tongue cancer

main factor that triggers the disease, experts called carcinogens formed during the combustion of tobacco.When this alcohol increases the activity of carcinogens, and doubles the risk of disease in smokers.

Promotes Cancer constant mechanical trauma of his tongue mucosa.It is often caused by constant biting language in one place, bad treatment fillings, acute dental edge, wrong set of dentures.

Experts suggest a link with the onset of chronic viral infection, which is caused by the herpes virus or human papilloma virus.

There precancerous conditions in respect of cancer of the tongue:

  • chronic erosions (ulcers) language;
  • papillomavirus;
  • leukoplakia - actinic surface epithelium;
  • Bowen's disease - intraepidermal skin cancer;
  • some forms of systemic lupus erythematosus;
  • some form of lichen planus;
  • benign tumors language.

Symptoms of the disease usually develops a malignant tumor on the side surfaces of the language, at least on the lower surface, or in the root area.

The initial symptoms of cancer of the tongue are the emergence of education in the language and unpleasant sensations in this regard.The most common type of tumor has a nonhealing ulcers, up to 1 cm in diameter.Sometimes the ulcer reaches a sufficiently large size.With further development of the disease appear the following signs of cancer of the tongue - itching, burning, pain in the tumor.Then they were joined by the neck swelling, facial, excessive salivation, halitosis.

tumor grows quickly, grasping at the same time the regional lymph nodes, surrounding tissues and organs.

development language signs of cancer is conventionally divided into three stages.

initial stage.It is characterized for oligosymptomatic.Sometimes on the surface of the tongue appear whitish spots, often mistaken for a normal raid.It may also occur papillary outgrowths, local redness or seal, usually on the side surfaces of the tongue.May increase the submandibular lymph nodes.In some patients already at this stage may appear pain.Often, this symptom of cancer of the tongue perceive as a sign of pulpitis (inflammation of the pulp) caries, glossitis (tongue inflammation), traumatic glossalgia (tongue disease), periodontitis (periodontal inflammation) and other diseases.

At this stage, the disease is one of three forms:

  • papillary - form dense formations that rise above the mucosa and covered blyashkovidnymi or papillary excrescences;
  • ulcer - the most common, is a defect in the mucosa of different appearance and shape;as ulcers growth marked pain and bleeding;
  • nodular form - is a seal arranged around the mucosa with whitish spots.

development.It is characterized by the manifestation of many signs of cancer of the tongue.Usually a person suffering from pain of varying intensity.They can be local, but can be given in different areas of the mouth, ear, temple.As a result of irritation of the oral mucosa products tumor lysis, the patient noted excessive salivation, slightly fetid breath.At this stage of the disease the patient becomes difficult to swallow saliva, it is difficult to make sounds.He suffers from pain when swallowing or persistent pain, numbness of the tongue, often appearing bleeding tongue.

In gastric cancer appear tongue-shaped sealing strata of language as a result of tumor growth.Spread to the whole language, it makes it difficult to seal the mobility of language.When infiltration (accumulation in the tissues of non-core elements, liquid) tumors often appear deep ulcers slit-like shape.

At this stage, the tumor can be of two forms - exophytic and endophytic.

Exophytic - mushroom-shaped tumor, which has a variety of growths on the surface.It is sometimes superficial ulcers of large size, which is surrounded by puffy roll.

endophytic - is an ulcer, which is located on a large infiltrate the tumor.Often ulcers are formed deep cracks.

advanced stage.At this stage of pronounced symptoms tongue cancer.The disease has an aggressive course with the rapid growth of the tumor.Metastatic tumor spread to regional lymph nodes - submental, submandibular, cervical, occipital.Distant metastases occur in the brain, lung, liver, and bones.

tongue cancer treatment

Successful treatment of the disease depends on the timeliness and accuracy of diagnosis.It should be time to treat precancerous state language.

the treatment of cancer of the tongue used standard methods of cancer treatment.These include - surgery, chemotherapy (drug therapy) and radiotherapy.

type of surgical treatment used in each case depends on the size and location of the tumor, the extent of its spread to nearby tissues and organs, the presence of metastases.The most favorable prognosis tongue cancer after surgical treatment expected if the tumor is removed are not captured nearby organs of the patient.Sometimes the surgeon has to remove the affected part of the sky, or tumor of the mandible.If the tumor has struck root of the tongue, removing a part of tissue that are responsible for swallowing food.

Chemotherapy involves taking the patient chemotherapy drugs that suppress the growth of cancer cells.This method can be used alone or in combination with radiotherapy.Chemotherapy drugs have strong side effects on the patient.There may be a violation of kidney function, bladder, nervous system.

in treating tongue cancer successfully applied radiation therapy.This method of exposure to ionizing radiation on cancer cells.At 1 and 2 stages of the disease used contact (applied to the affected area) gamma therapy.In stages 3 and 4 - Remote (held in a special room) gamma therapy.

forecast tongue cancer depends on many factors.Primarily, this is - tumor size, stage of the disease and rate, the presence or absence of metastasis in organs and surrounding lymph nodes.With timely treatment literate forecast five-year survival rate of cancer of the tongue, with 1 and 2 stages is approximately 80%, with 3 and 4 stages - about 35%.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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