Thyroid Cancer - Symptoms , metastases , treatment


1. Symptoms of thyroid cancer

2. Metastases

3. Treatment

4. prognosis of thyroid cancer

Thyroid Cancercancer - a disease which is characterized by the formation of malignant tumors.Recently, thyroid cancer symptoms become more frequent than before, especially in children, despite the fact that people over 40 years are more susceptible to the disease.For women, characterized by the formation of benign nodes, while men are more common malignancies.In some cases of thyroid carcinoma have a hereditary character.

The article describes about the symptoms of thyroid cancer, the treatment of the disease, as well as provide information about prognosis in thyroid cancer in different stages of the disease.

Symptoms of thyroid

symptoms of cancer of the thyroid gland in the early stages does not manifest itself.It should be noted that often occur on malignant tumor benign goiter background, has long existed in the body.One of the first signs of cancer is the rapid increase in th

e size of an existing Struma, its roughness and seal.

As a result of the inspection can be identified progressive node in the thyroid gland.In this case, the high probability of cancer, even though that, as a rule, individual nodes are benign.Such a feature

thyroid cancer as a tumor site occurs, usually, in one of its fractions, usually in its lower pole.Less assembly may occur in the isthmus glands.In any case, it tends to spread to both lobes.In the early stages of tumor it is smooth and rounded, with a dense texture than thyroid tissue.Over time, it becomes lumpy, it becomes clear boundaries, capturing both share.Tumor growth causes symptoms of thyroid cancer as difficulty breathing, hoarseness, and shortness of breath on exertion.In addition there is a violation of swallowing (dysphagia), which arises as a result of compression of the esophagus.In the process of tumor growth spreads to the neck muscles, the neurovascular bundle and fiber.A dense network of veins abruptly occurring on the skin, is also one of the symptoms of thyroid cancer.

By increasing the lymph nodes on the affected side often occurs malignancy.Thus, perhaps, the main symptom of cancer is an increase in cervical lymph nodes.

Another reliable sign of thyroid cancer, infiltrating recurrent laryngeal nerve is paralyzed vocal cord to the side of the unit.Since the paralysis has no effect on voice, his presence diagnosed by viewing the glottis by direct laryngoscopy.

Metastases Metastases in thyroid cancer occur in different organs, but they usually occur in bone, liver, brain and adrenal glands.

development of metastases in cancer of the thyroid gland is to spread cancer cells through the bloodstream or lymph through the body, where they develop in different parts of the body.There are two types of metastasis in thyroid cancer: hematogenous and lymphogenous.

for lymphatic metastasis is characterized by a main path of the lymph nodes, which are located in the jugular depression and lateral triangle of the neck.It also may include okolotrahealnye predgortannye and lymph nodes.

Hematogenous metastasis is the penetration of metastases in bones and lungs.In some cases the metastases occur in the liver, brain and other organs.

diagnosis of metastases is to hold a radioisotope study, based on the results of X-ray and CT scan, blood tests and urine tests.

is important to recognize the presence of metastasis in the early stages and spend their timely removal.Radioactive iodine is an effective tool to combat metastases.In this fabric must completely remove the thyroid.

Treatment Treatment of thyroid cancer depends on the type of histological tumor, its incidence and aggressiveness, age of the patient, and so forth.Thus, in each individual case is chosen certain tactics of treatment of the disease.Surgery extracting lymph nodes and fat neck on one or both sides, is rather radical method of treatment of thyroid cancer.Babies tend to leave a small part of the unaffected portion of the thyroid in order to avoid further endocrine disorders.

In some cases, the diagnosis can be established after the economical intervention.In such cases a second operation is carried out in a radical by irradiation with the volume before or after surgery.

combined method of treatment of thyroid cancer is to perform in the early stages of the disease distant gamma-therapy of the primary tumor and zones of regional metastasis in the neck.The second stage of treatment is based on radical surgery.

With the development of hypothyroidism after surgery requires lifelong intake of thyroid hormones.

Drug suppression of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the body is required for many types of thyroid cancer.

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy in palliative purposes is used in common forms of cancer.In some cases, appoint a tracheostomy, ie opening of the trachea followed by its special tube lumen in order to restore breathing.This procedure is necessary because the running form of the disease is characterized by the compression of the trachea, which can lead to severe suffocation, and sometimes suffocation.In such cases, surgery is performed on an emergency basis, and it seems quite difficult due to the overlap of access to an array of the trachea cancer.

prognosis of thyroid cancer

prognosis of thyroid cancer quite positive.In most cases it is possible to "win" the disease.The most common forms of cancer can be treated quite well (follicular and papillary carcinoma).The degree of recovery in the treatment of these cancers is 97% on average.Treatment in this case is the complete removal of the affected part of the body, as well as the partial or complete removal of the second part.

Cancer one of these forms is the type of cures of cancer in humans.In the course of correct treatment prognosis is very positive.

forecast medullary cancer is not so rosy.This type of disease is less common than the others, and is characterized by a tendency to spread to a large number of lymph nodes already in the early stages.In connection with this need more extensive surgical intervention is compared with a localized form of cancer.Medullary form of cancer requires complete removal of the tumor with lymph node dissection.

forecast anaplastic cancer is the most unfavorable.This type of cancer is also the most rare.The difficulty lies in the fact that this type of disease is diagnosed, usually in the later stages, when it is a chance for a cure, there is very little.The percentage of survival in anaplastic cancer is very small, since most of the operation does not allow to remove the entire tumor.In such cases, tracheostomy usually conducted - making an opening in the trachea in order to be able to breathe.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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