Colon cancer - steps, features , causes, treatment


1. stages of colon cancer

2. reasons

3. Symptoms of colon cancer

4. Diagnostics

5. Cancer Treatmentcolon

colon cancer behalf of various localization, form and histological structure of malignant tumors of the colon, a straight line, the cecum and the anal canal.In most developed countries, the disease is a leader in frequency among all types of cancer.Over the past two decades, cancer of the colon among the population on the prevalence of Russia is second only to cancer of the stomach, lung and breast.

stages of colon cancer

Definition stage of the disease is based on three criteria:

  • presence of cancer cells in the lymph;
  • presence of metastases;
  • depth of ingrowth tumors in the intestinal wall.

There are four stages of colon cancer:

  • I stage - localization in the submucosa and mucosa of the colon;
  • II stage - the size of the tumor up to half the circumference o
    f the intestine without metastases;
  • III stage - a tumor more than half of the circumference of the intestine and the absence of metastases or tumor of any size, and the presence of lymph node metastases;
  • IV stage - a large tumor, which hurt neighboring organs, or tumor of any size with metastases.

The stage is more, the cancer is more dangerous.


one single cause that would provoke the development of this type of cancer does not happen.Doctors believe that only the combination of a number of unfavorable factors can cause a person has this terrible disease.First of all, this:

1. The image of power.It is known that this type of cancer is common among people who prefer meat dishes with a minimum amount of fiber.Such food during digestion leads to an increase in fatty acid concentration, degenerate into cancer-causing agents.Lower cancer incidence observed among the people of India and Africa, where the basic diet consists of plants, fruits and vegetables.In fact, due to the large amount of fiber binds carcinogens and go along with the increased volume of fecal matter, minimally interacting with the intestinal walls.Also worth noting is that the negative effect on healthy cells have smoked, various chemicals and non-natural products.

2. Heredity.It is known that the closer the relationship with a patient with colon cancer, the higher the risk of developing the disease.Aggravating factors are malignant tumors of other bodies and a number of hereditary diseases: diffuse polyposis, Gardner's syndrome, and Turks.

3. Chronic bowel disease.To influence the development of cancer are diseases such as ulcerative colitis, intestinal polyps, Crohn's disease.

4. External environment - radiation, air pollution, and others.

Symptoms of colon cancer

sign of this cancer can be an adenoma - glandular tumor that grows in the intestinal lumen.Its size can be either very small and up to several centimeters in diameter.The adenoma, the greater the likelihood of the presence in it of cancer cells.Surprisingly, the symptoms of small malignancies may not be available for several years.

most obvious symptoms of colon cancer are:

  • change in stool;
  • violation of the digestive system;
  • false urge to defecate, accompanied by pain;
  • intestinal bleeding;
  • anemia;
  • weight loss;
  • regular abdominal pain.

Symptoms of colon cancer are varied and depend on the stage and location of the tumor.blood in the stool is celebrated in almost all patients.Violation of the chair and the difficulty of defecation are the characteristic signs of colon cancer later forms.In rare cases, the disease manifests itself immediately intestinal obstruction and requires immediate surgical intervention.


Currently, diagnosis of colon cancer include:

  • analysis of patient complaints and medical history;
  • clinical and manual research;
  • sigmoidoscopy;
  • analysis of blood and stool;
  • colonoscopy or barium enema;
  • ultrasound of the abdomen;
  • endorectal ultrasound;
  • biopsy of the tumor.

When analyzing the history doctor must pay attention to intestinal symptoms.Most tumors localized in the rectum and sigmoid colon, so the role of digital examination and sigmoidoscopy is very significant.To exclude diagnostic errors that can lead to incorrect treatment of colon cancer, bowel prior to the study should be properly prepared.

important, analyzing the tumor, the method is ultrasound, by means of which detected distant metastases and the extent of local spread of cancer.Use four types of ultrasound: percutaneous, endorectal, intraoperative and endoscopic.In the most difficult cases, we recommend magnetic resonance imaging and tomography.

treatment of colon cancer

most effective method of treatment has long been considered a radical removal of the metastasis and the tumor itself.Surgical therapy success largely depends on the quality of bowel preparation for surgery.A must for all patients considered to be receiving anti-inflammatory drugs, adherence to a strict diet during rehabilitation.For the treatment of the disease in the late stages after removal of cancer cells in patients undergoing chemotherapy.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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