Kidney cancer - symptoms , stage , treatment, prognosis


1. Symptoms

2. stages of the disease

3. Diagnosis and treatment of kidney cancer

4. prognosis of kidney cancer

kidney cancer - malignant tumor that affects the kidney, and in the last stages sprouting into adjacent structures (blood vessels and regional lymph nodes) and leads to tissue and organ metastasis.

The term "kidney cancer" refers to one of its kinds - renal cell.That kind of renal cell kidney cancer observed in 95% of patients.Such species as renal sarcoma, and Wilms' tumor is diagnosed very rarely.


For kidney cancer, like other cancers, is characterized by such common symptoms as unfounded gradual weight loss (may begin in a year or two prior to diagnosis);constant feeling of weakness, tiredness;a slight but steady increase in body temperature.

Initial symptoms of kidney cancer, as a rule, are not serious enough to cause a person to be examined.A secondary symptoms listed below begin to appear in a patient already in the last stages of the disease, when the survival prognosis is unfavorable.

Most patients experience the following symptoms of kidney cancer:

  • blood in the urine (hematuria)
  • pain in the lower back, abdomen
  • hypertension
  • in the last stages of the disease palpation kidney area feels tight formation

OnFirst stage kidney cancer usually occurs without pain.Just after the tumor grows in size and begin sprouting into adjacent structures, thus compressing nerves, there is a symptom of renal cancer, pain in the abdomen, pain in the lumbar region and above.As a rule, in nine out of ten cases, the pain suggests that the disease is not an early stage.

Blood in the urine is a mandatory symptom of kidney cancer, but not always, the patient can detect it.When microhematuria it can only be seen under a microscope.In the case of blood in the urine macrohematuria visible to the naked eye.Over the weeks, months and even years of blood in the urine can appear and disappear, and it depends on the tumor growth rate and size of the affected kidney tissue.

constant fever indicates that the process of metastasis of kidney cancer.In this case the patient feels shortness of breath, cough, pain in the affected organs and bones.

stages of the disease

There are four stages of kidney cancer (Robson classification).

first stage.The tumor is a kidney, it does not penetrate through its shell.Neither the lymphatic system or other organs, and in addition to the kidney tissue is not affected.

second stage kidney cancer suggests that the tumor began to penetrate through the shell, to germinate in the adrenals and small local blood vessels.

third stage.The tumor grows in size, it is distributed on kidney and / or the inferior vena cava, impressed regional lymph nodes, one possible presence of distant metastasis.

In the fourth stage of kidney cancer is a significant increase in tumor (7 cm or more), it ingrowth into adjacent organs, there are multiple metastases in organs and tissues.Metastases in renal cancer primarily affects the lungs and then the lymph nodes, bones, liver, adrenal glands.

Diagnosis and treatment of kidney cancer

first step in the diagnosis of disease - clinical analysis of blood and urine.Increased SEC (erythrocyte sedimentation rate), low hemoglobin will be the occasion for further examination.Typically, unwanted growths determined during ultrasound of the abdominal area.Then, to get an accurate result, the patient is sent to urography (a specific X-ray examination of the kidneys), computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).The above diagnostic methods allow to identify the size and location of the tumor, the presence or absence of regional and distant metastases, make educated treatment protocol for kidney cancer.

methods of treatment of the disease depends on the stage at which it was revealed.

In the first stage the prognosis of kidney cancer is favorable, the disease can be cured.simple, radical or partial nephrectomy (kidney removal) is carried out with the help of surgery.That is, regardless of the chosen method of treatment for kidney cancer, it is possible full or partial (if there are indications) organ removal (kidney).Radical nephrectomy After the probability of relapse is significantly lower than with partial nephrectomy.

Operative surgery is the most effective method of treatment for kidney cancer.Other traditional methods (chemotherapy and radiotherapy) in the treatment of disease are rarely used.This type of tumor is almost not sensitive to chemotherapy drugs used.Radiotherapy plays the role of palliative, that is used only for the removal of kidney cancer symptoms (pain, discomfort), but not for its treatment.

The second and third stages of the disease, doctors too have resorted to remove the body.But, as a rule, it is no longer a question of partial nephrectomy.Along with the sick body of the adrenal glands are removed, adipose tissue, the regional lymph nodes.And to stop the growth of metastases in renal cancer, postoperative radiation therapy is carried out.

And even the fourth stage of the disease doctors perform nephrectomy.But it is palliative in nature, is aimed at removing the symptoms of the disease, and even a slight, but prolong the life of the sick person.

Medicine does not stand still, are increasingly beginning to apply new methods of cancer treatment.In particular, this method is Targeted (immune) therapy.Its task is that of using drugs, which contain the antibody to act per molecule which stimulates the growth of foreign cells.Such a method of treatment of renal cancer acts only on diseased cells, thus carries no harm to the body as a whole.

Some experts even claim that with the help of targeted therapy in the near future will be possible to completely cure cancer patients, even in the last stages of the disease.

prognosis of kidney cancer

At the first stage of the disease, provided that the competent approach to the treatment of a favorable prognosis, 90% of patients are cured.

Depending on the lesions, in the second stage of kidney cancer can achieve 60-70% survival.

If you were impressed by the lymph nodes (third stage), the 5-year survival rate can be achieved in 20% of patients.

If the disease is detected at its last stage, there are multiple metastases, the prognosis of kidney cancer is usually unfavorable.The survival of less than one year, and within six months.

Oncological diseases - the scourge of our time.But do not forget that, subject to the timely diagnosis of the disease can be completely cured.Therefore, at the slightest suspicion of a problem in the body, contact your doctor to be screened.In addition, to minimize the likelihood of kidney cancer you need to lead a healthy lifestyle to keep the weight under control.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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