24 May

Oral cancer - causes, symptoms and treatment

Contents:

1. reasons that trigger the development of oral cancer

2. Symptoms of oral cancer

3. Treatment of oral cancer

oral cancermouth - a malignant tumor that affects any part of the mucous membrane of the mouth, including the cheeks, throat, gums, tongue, upper and lower jaw, lips.

reasons that trigger the development of oral cancer

Currently, the exact cause of cancer is not known.Experts point out the factors that trigger the appearance of this severe disease.

Smoking.Tobacco smoke contributes to the constant irritation of oral mucosa cells.About 90% of patients suffering from oral mucosa cancer, smoke or use chewing tobacco.

Alcohol abuse.Alcohol also irritates the mucous mouth.The combination of smoking with alcohol significantly increases the risk of disease.

Irritation dentures for a long time.Improperly selected dentures lead to greater absorption of tobacco or alcohol.The resulting amplified negative effect on the oral mucosa.

leukoplakia.Education, which is call

ed a precancerous condition.This limited whitish spot, the size of which does not exceed 1 cm. Such education often solitary, usually does not rise above the mucosa.There in the mucosa of the cheek or tongue.

erythroplakia.Another form of precancerous lesions.It is a formation of a reddish color developing on the oral mucosa.

Human Papilloma Virus.In some cases, it is a provoking factor in the appearance of the oral mucosa cancer.

Symptoms of oral cancer

Symptoms of oral cancer depends on the period of the disease.

1.Nachalny period.The most common symptom of the disease is an unusual sensation in the affected area.When viewed from the mouth can be seen various changes - white spots, papillary tumors, superficial ulcers, and induration mucosa.

In the initial period of the disease in 25% of patients the pain in the oral cavity.The most common cancer pain appear when the rear half of the mouth or jaw alveolar ridge.However, in half the cases the pain associated with dental disease, angina.

are three anatomical shape in the initial period of the development of oral cavity cancer:

  • ulcerative form - the most common;in one half of the patients develop sores quickly, the other - slowly;
  • nodular form - manifested in tissue hardening or thickening in the lining, which is surrounded by whitish spots;Seal clearly limited and develop much faster than ulcers;
  • papillary form - characterized by the formation of dense outgrowths of the mucous membrane, which is usually covered by intact mucosa;developing very fast;

2. Developed period.Patients have many symptoms of oral cancer.In most cases, patients suffer from pain in the oral cavity.Although there are cases of absence of pain.Pain may be local in nature, or to give a specific region of the head, for example, in the temporal region, ear.Many patients have increased salivation, offensive breath.This is due to the decay of infection and tumors.

There are two forms of cancer period:

  • exophytic form - can be papillary (the tumor has a mushroom shape with papillary or blyashkovidnymi outgrowths) and peptic ulcer (ulcer surface with a roller limiting tumor growth);
  • endophytic - is ulcerous-infiltrative (ulcer situated on a large tumor infiltration) and infiltrative (diffuse organ failure);oral mucosa when these tumors has not ulcers;

endophytic diffusely affecting organs, more malignant than exophytic forms that have a limited type of growth.

3. The period of neglect.Symptoms of oral cancer greatly enhanced.The disease spreads rapidly, destroying the surrounding tissue.At this stage, the tumor is very aggressive and malignant.

Treatment of oral cancer

therapy of this disease is carried out by standard methods of cancer treatment - surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy.The method used depends on several factors: the general condition of the patient, the size of a malignant tumor, the degree of sprouting in the surrounding tissues and organs, the cancer stage of development, the existence of regional and distant metastases.Often, in the treatment of oral cancer therapy combine several methods.Generally, before or after irradiation of the tumor operations are performed.Often used as surgery and chemotherapy.All this can significantly increase the chances of successful treatment.

Radiation therapy is the exposure to ionizing radiation on cancer cells.But, besides effects on cancer cells, the radiation effect on healthy cells.However, cancer cells, yet are more sensitive to ionizing radiation.

Radiation exposure is carried out by contact or remotely.When a contact method to the tumor for some time applied special items that emit radiation.If the remote method, irradiation is carried out in a special chamber.A beam of radiation is directed at the tumor area.

side effects of radiation therapy for oral cancer is exposure of the thyroid gland.Therefore, before starting treatment check thyroid function, conducted a study of its hormones.

Chemotherapy - the use of chemotherapeutic agents that suppress the livelihoods of cancerous tumor cells and destroying them.Chemotherapy drugs are different groups.Their form, method and duration of use, the doctor selects doses depending on the type of tumor, its size, developmental stage and the presence of metastases.Chemotherapy is carried out before surgery or radiation therapy to reduce the tumor size.Or after surgery or radiation therapy to kill any remaining cancer cells.

Chemotherapy drugs are injected directly into the patient's bloodstream, causing manifest their effect on organs and tissues.This is related to the side effects of their use.

oral cancer treatment by means of surgery.Type, extent of surgical treatment depends on the size of the tumor, its degree of germination in the surrounding tissues, the presence of metastases.With minimal impact on the patient's doctor may remove a malignant tumor that has not grown into the surrounding tissues or organs.

Sometimes the surgeon has to remove part of the sky or the lower jaw.With the development of regional metastases in the lymph nodes of the neck, they are also subject to removal.

forecast oral mucosa cancer depends on the form of the disease.The most successful curable papillary form.Ulcers form - one of the most difficult and adverse treatment.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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