Liver cancer - symptoms stage treatment metastases


1. Causes of liver cancer

2. symptoms

3. stage liver cancer

4. treatment of disease

5. forecast atliver cancer

liver cancer - malignant tumor that is localized in the liver.

The disease may be primary or secondary.Primary cancer - developing of hepatic cell structures.Secondary - growing in the liver of the cancer cells, which are brought in from other organs.Secondary liver cancer is 20 times more common than primary.The liver is one of the most commonly affected organ metastases.

Causes of liver cancer

Development Many factors contribute to the disease.

1.Hronichesky viral hepatitis B. The risk of developing liver cancer in carriers of hepatitis B virus increases 200 times.

2.Tsirroz liver.Approximately 60-90% of patients have cirrhosis.

3.Hronicheskie liver disease - gallstones, hepatitis.

4.Gemohromatoz - a disease that appears in the excessive content of iron in the human body.

5.Parazitarnye diseases - schistosomiasis, opistorhoz and others.

6.Zloupotreblenie alcohol.

7.Vozdeystvie carcinogens in the often industrial products - herbicides, pesticides, chlorinated, hydrocarbon solvents.

8.Aflatoksiny - substances that are released by some kinds of mushrooms.They may infect wheat, corn, rice, peanuts, soybeans.

9.Anabolicheskie steroids.Prolonged intake of these drugs increases the risk of developing the disease.

In addition to these factors increases the risk of male gender, diabetes.


main symptoms of liver cancer are imperceptible onset of the disease and its rapid development.

Typically, patients go to the doctor after 2-3 months of field emergence of the first symptoms of liver cancer.About 70% of patients have abdominal pain, have lost appetite, decreases body weight.Many people find themselves at a tumor or an increase in liver size.At the same time they feel distension in the upper abdomen.

main liver cancer symptoms:

  • pain in the upper abdomen, right upper quadrant or in the lumbar region;Pain initially appears only during exercise, walking, can later become permanent, moderate intensity;
  • increase in abdominal size;
  • fatigue, lethargy, weakness;
  • jaundice occurs in half of patients, it is the result of compression of tumor intrahepatic bile duct;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • flatulence, diarrhea;
  • pronounced weight loss;
  • occurrence of edema;
  • fever up to 38 ° C;
  • ascites - fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity;It occurs in late stage liver cancer;
  • nosebleeds.

secondary cancer or cancer metastasis to the liver may lead to liver failure, severe intoxication as a result of disintegration of waste products.Hazardous cancer metastasis to the liver may have a size greater than 10 cm.

stages of liver cancer, depending on the size of the tumor and its spread are the following stages of liver cancer.

first stage.It is characterized by the existence of a tumor of any size that does not touch the blood vessels.

second stage.Characterized by multiple tumors having dimensions up to 5 cm or a tumor that affects the blood vessels.

third stage.This stage of liver cancer is divided by 3A, 3B, 3C.

Step 3A indicates that there are several tumors having a size larger than 5 cm, or that the tumor branch touches a large vein.

Stage 3B means that the tumor has spread to the outer shell of the liver or other organs (except the gallbladder).

Stage 3C indicates that the tumor (single or multiple) has spread to the lymph nodes.

fourth stage.This step means that the cancer had metastasized to other organs.Usually, metastases appear on the edges and spine.

treatment of disease

success of treatment of liver cancer depends on the stage of the disease.Typically, surgery is used, chemotherapy, radiation therapy.

best results in the treatment of this disease can be achieved using a liver transplant.Organ transplantation but this is only possible at an early stage of the disease.Since cancer is diagnosed at an early stage is very rare, the possibility of such an operation is lost.Difficulties arise with the search for a donor for transplantation.

Enough effective treatment of liver cancer using surgery to remove a liver tumor site.But in addition to the need for surgery at an early stage of the disease, there are difficulties associated with the functionality of the body.In some cases, the remaining part of the body is not able to cope with its functions.Then the patient has liver failure, which is very difficult to treat.

For those patients who are expected to turn to liver transplantation is performed radiofrequency ablation.This method of treatment of liver cancer in which the tumor is locally affected by an alternating electric current.Radiofrequency ablation in combination with other treatments is one of the most effective in the treatment of patients with inoperable primary cancers and cancer metastases to the liver.

regional chemotherapy (chemoembolization) is applied at the impossibility of transplantation and surgical treatment of the disease.With this method, the treatment of liver cancer blocking blood flow (embolization) vein or artery that feeds the tumor.At the same time the drug is administered chemotherapy drug that is locally affected by the tumor.

Another method, used in the treatment of liver cancer, is radioembolizatsiya.The operating principle of this procedure is similar to chemoembolization.Only instead of the chemotherapy drug is administered Yttrium-90 element.This element emits beta radiation, within which tissue necrosis develops.

traditional oncology treatments, such as radiation and systemic chemotherapy, are not particularly effective in the treatment of liver cancer.They can be used in combination therapy.

prognosis of liver cancer

prognosis of liver cancer unfavorable.The course of the disease is very rapid and often within a few months is fatal.Patients with this disease are incurable patients.They apply symptomatic treatment.When tumors resectable character after the operation the average duration of the patient's life is three years.Five-year survival is only observed in a fifth of patients.The prognosis of inoperable liver cancer character is about four months of life expectancy after diagnosis.

metastases in the liver cancer treatments, and prognosis depend on the characteristics of the primary tumor.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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