Bladder Cancer - symptoms stage treatment


1. Cancer Causes Bladder

2. Symptoms of the disease

3. stage of cancer of the bladder

4. treatment of disease

5. forecast bladder cancer

bladder cancer - cancer disease in which the walls of the bladder epithelium develops a malignant tumor.

The disease is common in men three times more often than women.The average age of people suffering from this disease is 68 years.

Causes of bladder cancer

main factor that triggers the development of the disease, experts called smoking.About half of patients have the habit.Harmful and passive smoking, especially when a person is in a smoky room for a long time.

Another factor that increases the risk of disease, is the impact on the body of carcinogens.Such exposures are employees of industrial enterprises for the production of paints, petroleum products, plastics, textiles, rubber.

Doctors note and genetic factors in the development of this disease.

Many researchers argue that significantly increases the risk of illness

insufficient amount of fluid that enters the human body.Heavy drinking contributes to the normal washing of the walls of the bladder.As a result, carcinogens can not affect its long wall.

There are diseases that contribute to the development of bladder cancer:

  • urolithiasis;
  • recurrent urinary tract infections and kidney;
  • chronic parasitic infection of the bladder;
  • prostate cancer.

Symptoms of the disease

main symptoms of bladder cancer are hematuria (presence of blood in the urine) and dysuria (violation of urine separation).Hematuria refers to the earliest signs of the disease.Often it manifests itself as a result of injury to the tumor while reducing the bladder.Even if the tumor has not grown into the bladder wall, the sign will indicate the onset of the disease.With increased bleeding tumors hematuria is constant.

With further development and decay of the tumor as a result of joining the infection may cause cystitis (bladder infection) and pyelonephritis (kidney inflammation).The urine of the patient becomes turbid, it contains impurities and inclusions pus salts.

tumor invasion into the bladder wall contributes to the manifestation of yet another symptom of bladder cancer - speeded up, painful urination, which is characterized by persistent urging.Sometimes pain are permanent, given in the lower back, buttocks, genitals, perineum, sacrum, lower limbs.Often this is due to the involvement in the process of tumor nerve plexus, the nerves surrounding tissues.

The destruction of tissues is their suppuration and fistula formation (channel between hollow organs) between the bladder and the rectum, or between the bladder and the vagina.The patient suffers from severe pain in the pelvis, discharge from the fistula, a high body temperature.

During germination of the tumor in the bladder wall near the mouths of the ureters, the patient has renal failure and uremia (kidney accumulation of metabolic products, in particular nitrogenous substances).

Violation of urination is the periodic nature if the tumor grows on a stalk.Symptoms of bladder cancer are absent at the location of the tumor away from the mouth of the urethra and ureter.

stages of bladder cancer

most often experts use the international classification of malignant tumors - TNM.Each letter of the classification characterizes a certain parameter.

T - is the location of the tumor.

T is - stage cancer of the bladder, in which the tumor affects only the mucosa, is not going to the surrounding tissue.

T 1-2- stage of the surface of cancer.

T 3-4 - the stage of the tumor, which grows into the muscle layer of the bladder or surrounding tissues and organs.

N - means the degree of lymph node metastases.

N 1 - stage lesions of the pelvic lymph nodes.

N 2 - stage lesions of retroperitoneal lymph nodes.

M - indicates the presence or absence of metastases.

M 1 - the absence of metastases.

M 2 - the presence of metastases.

also often use a simple classification of stages of cancer of the bladder:

  • Stage 1 - the spread of cancer in the epithelial connective tissue;
  • Stage 2 - the tumor grows into the muscle layer;
  • 3 stage - a tumor grows into the surrounding tissue;
  • Stage 4 - the tumor spreads to the uterus or prostate, vagina, abdominal wall.In the presence of regional and distant metastases.

treatment of disease

The main methods of treatment of bladder cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy.

most commonly used surgical treatment.It is carried out in one of the following operations.

1.Transuretralnaya resection.The doctor uses a special cystoscope, which enters through the urethra into the bladder.The tumor was removed with the help of a special device, and electric current required power.

2.Rezektsiya bladder.Removal of the tumor together with the affected part of the bladder.This operation is rarely performed, but in the case of cancer is in one part of the bladder.

3.Ekstirpatsiya or bladder cystectomy - removal of the bladder.Most often with bladder removed adjacent tissue.Men usually removed prostate, seminal vesicles, and urethra often.Women - the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, vagina, urethra.Furthermore, the pelvic lymph nodes removed.

chemotherapy, which is used in the treatment of bladder cancer, involves the use of drugs that kill cancer cells.When intravesical chemotherapy, chemotherapy drugs injected into the bladder on a special catheter.Systemic chemotherapy aims to kill cancer cells throughout the body.

Radiation therapy is based on the use of high doses of radiation to shrink the tumor and kill cancer cells.For irradiation treatments using special devices.

the treatment of bladder cancer immunotherapy employed.To do this, use drugs that increase the body's defenses.Most often used intravesical immunotherapy, in which Immunopreparat special catheter is inserted into the bladder.

forecast bladder cancer

Prognosis depends on the degree of malignancy of the tumor, the stage of its development, the presence of metastasis, radical of the treatment.

favorable bladder cancer prognosis of the disease is possible for one stage and, increasingly, for 2 stage.Of great importance is the timely patient access to a doctor and a competent diagnosis of the disease.Cancer stages 3 and 4 has a much worse prognosis.Especially the presence of metastases worsens the prognosis.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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