Breast cancer - stage treatment , surgery


1. Risk Factors

2. Signs of breast cancer

3. Symptoms of breast cancer

4. Treatment

Breastcancer - a disease characterized by the formation of malignant tumor, a cancer resulting from degeneration of normal breast cells.

According to statistics, today one in ten women in the world suffer from this disease.In men, this type of cancer occurs nearly 100 times less.In addition, the disease tends to "younger" because some time ago it developed mainly in women aged fifty years, and today is much more frequent cases of the disease in women aged 40,30, and even 20 years.

Risk Factors

Among the main risk factors for the development of the disease can be identified obesity, inflammation of the uterus and ovaries, atherosclerosis, hypertension, liver disease, breast, smoking, as well as hypothyroidism.Precancerous lesions is also a history of breast disease.

Signs of breast

cancer Among the most pronounced signs can be distinguished deformation of nipples and change t

heir color for breast cancer, retraction of the nipple, the occurrence of defects on the nipple, the deformation of the skin of breast (skin discoloration and swelling).

important signs of the disease are symptoms of mastitis.

In the initial stages of the disease are observed symptoms of breast cancer, as the emergence of dense small size of the tumor, not accompanied by any pain, as well as the mobility of the axillary lymph nodes.

In addition there may be wrinkles and skin umbilikatsiya chest.Often marked "pad symptom."

the third and fourth stages of the disease the tumor becomes much larger.During this period, it changes the shape of the breast.Observed signs of the disease such as ulceration, as well as a symptom of "lemon peel".In some cases the swollen hands.

tumor can grow and develop at different rates.Within one year of primary tumor may be doubled.The degree of malignancy of the tumor depends on the degree of sprawl.

Symptoms of breast cancer

In the first stage of breast cancer tumor size is not more than 2 cm in diameter.At the same time there are no symptoms such as regional metastasis, sprouting in the skin and surrounding fatty tissue.

second stage of breast cancer characterized by an increase in tumor size up to 2-5 cm in diameter.Germination and development of tissue metastases is observed.There may be a symptom such as partial cohesion with the skin.

Among the main symptoms of the disease at a stage IIa can be isolated "symptom wrinkling" (occurrence of shallow wrinkles on the skin of the breast in the capture of the crease, wrinkles are arranged perpendicular to the fold).In addition there is a "symptom of the site", characterized by the appearance of the skin in the chest area with reduced elasticity.A special feature of the site is its inability to deal even after a short infringement.

Stage IIb is characterized by having no more than two metastases in the affected breast area.Perhaps the manifestation of such symptoms of breast cancer as umbilikatsiya.

third stage of the disease is accompanied by an increase in tumors up to 5 cm in diameter.In this case sprouting is observed in the skin and fatty tissue.

Among the main symptoms of cancer stage III can be isolated swelling of the skin, a symptom of "lemon peel", "symptom umbilikatsii" (Inverted skin over the tumor).In some cases the nipple retraction.In the third step a maximum tolerance of two metastases.

fourth stage of the disease involves the defeat of the entire breast.For this stage is characterized by symptoms such as extensive ulcerations and metastases.

cancerous breast tumor does not metastasize to various organs and tissues.It is through the milk passages occurs metastatic lesion.Thus, metastases spread to the subscapularis, axillary, over-and subclavian lymph nodes.They can also affect the liver, ovaries, lung, as well as the femur and pelvic bone.

Treatment Breast cancer treatment is chosen individually in each case.

Surgery plays a crucial role in the fight against disease.

mastectomy - surgery for breast cancer is to remove a small (and sometimes large) pectoral muscle that is affected by the disease.Furthermore, during operation the lymph nodes located in the sternum can be deleted in breast cancer.

Breast cancer treatment also includes a radical sectoral resection.This operation allows you to save the body, because only removes a certain part of the pectoral muscle.Sectoral resection does not rule out recurrence, so after surgery, usually prescribe radiation therapy.

Radiation therapy used in the treatment to prevent recurrence in the postoperative period.The use of radiation therapy in the preoperative period, thereby reducing the degree of malignancy of the tumor.

breast cancer treatment involves the use of chemotherapy aimed at blocking the development of metastases.Chemotherapy reduces the stage of the cancer, improving the results of the operation, as well as the monitoring of symptoms of the disease.The duration of chemotherapy is an average of two weeks.This course is recommended to be repeated every month.

Hormone also plays a significant role in the treatment of disease.

should be noted that during treatment significantly reduced body status.In order to enhance the body's defenses are recommended immunotherapy is the use of various immunomodulators.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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